Blog
Law Offices of Chance M. McGhee

Call Today for a FREE Consultation

210-342-3400

Archive for the ‘tax interest and penaltiies’ tag

The Effects of an Income Tax Lien

August 31st, 2020 at 7:00 am

Try to file bankruptcy before a tax lien gets recorded. But if you can’t, here are the effects of a tax lien under Chapter 7 and 13.

 

This blog post continues a series about the smart timing of your bankruptcy filing. (It was interrupted by two blog posts updating federal unemployment benefits.) The last in this series was about how good bankruptcy timing prevents you paying certain income tax interest and penalties. We ended with this: “The effect of a tax lien depends on whether the tax at issue qualifies for discharge, and whether you file a Chapter 7 or 13 case.” That’s today’s important topic.

Bankruptcy Timing and Tax Liens

The recording of a tax lien by the IRS or state often causes extra headaches. So it’s usually better to file your bankruptcy case before you’re hit with a tax lien.

But you may go to see a bankruptcy lawyer until after that’s already happened. Or your lawyer may advise to you wait to file for some tactical reason. That reason may be related to your income tax debt(s). It’s not unusual to delay filing until the tax meets the conditions for discharge (full write-off). While you’re holding off on filing, you run the risk of the IRS/state recording a tax lien.

If you’re waiting to file on the advice of your bankruptcy lawyer, he or she will likely tell you about the risks and potential effects of a tax lien. The following outlines what you may hear.

General Effect of a Tax Lien

The recording of a tax lien gives the IRS/state a security interest on everything you own. Your assets then become collateral on the tax debt.

Actually, where or how the IRS/state records the lien determines the assets that it covers. Usually one tax lien covers your real estate, while another covers your personal property—everything else you own. Look carefully at the wording of the tax lien to see what tax years it covers and what assets it encumbers. These details matter as you and your lawyer determine the effect of the lien(s).

A Tax Lien on a Non-Dischargeable Tax under Chapter 7

Assume you file a Chapter 7 “straight bankruptcy” case and you owe a tax that does not qualify for discharge.

The recording of a tax lien on such a tax does not greatly affect what happens in that bankruptcy case. As discussed in our last tax-related blog post, you’ll have to arrange to pay that tax after completing your bankruptcy. You’ll also have to pay the ongoing interest and penalties.

The tax lien may put more pressure on you to make those payment arrangements. You’ll also want to get reassurances that the IRS/state will not take any other collection actions while you pay as agreed. The lien will also motivate you to pay the tax as fast as possible to get a release of the lien.

You’ll usually go this Chapter 7 direction if it will discharge your other debts so that you can reasonably pay off the tax debt(s).

A Tax Lien on a Non-Dischargeable Tax under Chapter 13

The situation is somewhat similar under an “adjustment of debts” Chapter 13 case. You still have to pay the tax that doesn’t meet the timing and other conditions of discharge. But you do that through your 3-to-5-year Chapter 13 payment plan. This gives you the benefit of not having to make payment arrangements with the IRS/state. The Chapter 13 procedure does that for you.

You just pay your monthly play payment, and your tax debt is incorporated into that. The IRS/state must comply with the “automatic stay,” which prevent all your creditors from taking any collection action against you. At the end of your case you will have paid off the tax. So the IRS/state will release any tax lien related to it.

A pre-existing tax lien in the Chapter 13 context can be meaningful in one way. The tax lien effects the payment of interest and penalties.

In a Chapter 7 case with a nondischargeable income tax you have to pay all interest and penalties. That’s true regardless whether there’s a pre-filing tax lien. The tax lien mostly serves to put more pressure on you to make payment arrangements and pay it off fast.

A Chapter 13 case is different. If there’s no tax lien, you would not have to pay ongoing interest and penalties. You’d likely pay only a portion of the penalties accrued as of the date of filing the Chapter 13 case. Sometimes you’d pay none.

 But with a tax lien, you must generally pay ongoing interest in your Chapter 13 payment plan. That can add how much you must pay into your plan and thus how long your plan takes.  

A Tax Lien on a Dischargeable Tax under Chapter 7

The effect of a tax lien on a tax debt that otherwise qualifies for Chapter 7 discharge can be huge. The Chapter 7 case would usually simply discharge that debt, so you would owe nothing.

But if there’s a prior recorded tax lien, that lien survives the bankruptcy case. The discharge of the tax debt does not legally affect the lien. Then the key issue becomes the value of the assets to which the lien attaches.

If you don’t have any real estate and your other assets are minimal, the IRS/state has less leverage over you. Especially if the tax debt was not large, some tax entities will then voluntarily release the tax lien. Both the tax and the tax lien would then be gone.

But some tax entities are more aggressive. This is more likely if the amount of the dischargeable tax is relatively large. They will leverage their tax lien to require you to pay all or part of the tax debt. They won’t release their lien otherwise.  Sounds unfair considering that the debt is otherwise dischargeable. But that’s the potential effect of the tax lien.

This leveraging is understandably much more likely if the assets to which their tax lien(s) attach are substantial. And in particular, this is true if that asset is equity in your home. You could be made to pay an entire tax debt that otherwise qualifies for discharge because of a tax lien.

So there’s a lot of uncomfortable ambiguity when you have tax lien on a dischargeable tax in Chapter 7.

A Tax Lien on a Dischargeable Tax under Chapter 13

A lot of this ambiguity is resolved in a Chapter 13 case. That’s because there’s an efficient procedure for determining the effect of a tax lien.

You and your bankruptcy lawyer will propose the value of assets that are encumbered by the tax lien. That’s done in the Chapter 13 plan you file with the bankruptcy court. You’re effectively stating what you believe to be the practical value of that tax lien, and thus the amount you’ll pay.

The IRS/state can object to this proposed treatment or not. If it objects, the value and amount you pay is usually negotiated, or if necessary decided by the bankruptcy judge.

Or, as is often the case, the IRS/state does not object. That often happens if what you and your bankruptcy lawyer propose is reasonable. Next, whatever you proposed becomes the court-approved plan. Assuming you pay off the plan as approved, that will take care of the IRS/state. Then at the end of the case the judge will discharge the remaining debt. With the debt gone, the IRS/state will then release the tax lien(s).

 

Avoiding Income Tax Interest and Penalties

August 10th, 2020 at 7:00 am

Bankruptcy timing can affect not only whether you must pay a tax debt but also whether you must pay certain tax interest and penalties.


This blog post is in a series about the importance of smart timing of your bankruptcy filing. Today we cover how good bankruptcy timing can prevent you having to pay certain income tax interest and penalties.

Avoiding Income Tax Interest and Penalties by Discharging the Tax Itself

Two weeks ago we discussed how to time a Chapter 7 “straight bankruptcy” appropriately to discharge an income tax debt. “Discharge” means to legally, permanently write off the tax. Then last week we discussed how to discharge an income tax in a Chapter 13 “adjustment of debts” case. When you discharge a tax in these ways what happens to the interest and penalties tied to that tax?

Generally, if you discharge an income tax debt, that also discharges any interest and penalties associated with that tax. That’s the most straightforward way to avoid such tax interest and penalties.

What If the Tax Does Not Qualify for Discharge?

If your tax debt doesn’t meet the timing and other conditions for discharge, what happens to the interest and penalties? That depends on whether you (with the help of your bankruptcy lawyer) file a Chapter 7 or Chapter 13 case.

Interest and Penalties on Nondischargeable Tax under Chapter 7

If you file a Chapter 7 bankruptcy you continue owing the tax, and the interest and taxes keep accumulating.

You do receive one brief benefit. During the 3-4 months of the bankruptcy procedure the IRS and/or state legally may not collect the tax. The “automatic stay” that stops just about all debt collection activity applies to all your income tax debts. But as soon as the Chapter 7 case is done, the tax collection activity can resume. The interest and penalties continues to accumulate even during your case. And after the case they will continue accumulating as normal until you pay the tax, interest, and penalties in full. So with taxes that don’t qualify for discharge, Chapter 7 does not help with tax interest and penalties.

Interest and Penalties on Nondischargeable Tax under Chapter 13

However, if you file a Chapter 13 case there is some help with tax interest and penalties. This can be true even with a nondischargeable income tax.

In most Chapter 13 cases you do not have to pay any ongoing interest and penalties after filing your case. Through your payment plan you pay the tax over the 3-to-5-year life of your case. But the IRS/state writes off any after-filing accumulating interest and penalties as long as you successfully complete your case. (If you don’t complete your case, the IRS/state tacks on any accumulating interest and penalties to whatever tax you didn’t pay.)

What about the before-Chapter-13-filing interest and penalties? You must pay the interest portion along with the nondischargeable tax that you have to pay.

However you usually don’t have to pay the before-bankruptcy-filing penalty portion in full. Sometimes you don’t have to pay any of it. The tax penalties are a “general unsecured” debt. You generally pay general unsecured debts only as much as you can afford to pay during the life of your Chapter 13 case. This means that you may pay as little as none of the pre-bankruptcy penalties.

Furthermore, in most cases these penalties don’t add a dime to the amount you must pay into your Chapter 13 case. That’s because in most cases you pay what you can afford into the pool of general unsecured debts over the life of your payment plan. A set amount filters down to these debts. So the dollar amount of tax penalties merely reduces how much other general unsecured debts receive. You don’t pay any more. The amount you pay just gets shifted around among these debts.

Exceptions

There are exceptions to the above. Sometimes the amount you pay into your payment plan is driven less by your budget than by non-exempt (unprotected) assets. Then you may need to pay more to your general unsecured debts (which includes the pre-bankruptcy penalties). You may even need to pay them in full—a so-called 100% plan. But that’s rare. Your bankruptcy lawyer will discuss this with you if you have this unusual situation.

What about the Effect of a Recorded Income Tax Lien?

That’s a great question. The recording of an income tax lien before filing a bankruptcy case can definitely create additional headaches for you. This can be true about both the underlying tax itself and the related interest and penalties.

So the simple timing preference is, when possible, file your bankruptcy case before the IRS/state records a tax lien.

The effect of a tax lien depends on whether the tax at issue qualifies for discharge, and whether you file a Chapter 7 or 13 case. We’ll cover these in our blog post next week.

 

Timing Bankruptcy to Discharge Income Taxes

July 27th, 2020 at 7:00 am

  

Usually you can discharge income taxes (write them off forever) by waiting to file bankruptcy long enough. Here’s how it works under Chapter 7.

 

Our blog post of two weeks ago introduced the importance of timing your bankruptcy filing right. We gave a list of 15 examples of timing considerations. Last week we started with the first one, timing the filing to cover as many debts as possible. Today it’s about discharging/writing off income taxes, specifically under a Chapter 7 “straight bankruptcy.”

Here are a few eye-catching facts:

  • It is possible to discharge many income tax debts, so that you do not owe a dime of that tax.
  • You just have to meet a list of conditions.
  • Most, but not all, of those conditions involve the passing of time. You need to wait long enough before filing bankruptcy to permanently discharge a tax debt.
  • If you don’t meet the conditions, bankruptcy does not discharge the tax at all. You owe it in full. If you filed a Chapter 7 case, you have to pay the tax after completing the case.
  • In that situation you’d also have to pay the continuously incurring tax interest and penalties.
  • But if you do meet the conditions, your Chapter 7 case will discharge the entire tax. You will owe nothing after your case is finished (usually only about 4 months after filing it).
  • You will also not owe any of the related tax interest or penalties.
  • There are various additional factors—such as recorded tax liens—that can complicate the situation and the tactics involved.

Timing is Often Crucial

Although there is a list of conditions, often the ones that matter are the ones involving timing. Specifically they pertain to when you file your Chapter 7 case.

Much of the time a Chapter 7 case will discharge an income tax debt if you meet two timing conditions. The date that you and your bankruptcy lawyer file that bankruptcy case must be both:

  1. at least 3 years after the tax return for that tax was due, and
  2. at least 2 years after that tax return was actually submitted to the IRS or state tax authority.  

See Section 507(a)(8)(A)(i) of the U.S. Bankruptcy Code for this first timing condition; section 523(a)(1)(B) for the second.

Note: Regarding the first 3-year condition above, add any time given through an extension to file the pertinent tax return. Section 507(a)(8)(A)(i) of the Bankruptcy Code. For example, assume you got the usual 6-month tax return extension from April 15 to October 15 for the pertinent year. Then you don’t start the 3-year time period until that October 15 instead of April 15.

Applying these Timing Rules

These two timing rules will make more sense when applied to an example.

Assume the following. You:

  • owe $10,000 in income taxes for the 2016 tax year, plus a bunch of accruing interest and penalties
  • had asked for a 6-month extension to October 15, 2017 (actually to October 16 since the 15th that year was a Sunday)
  • actually did not submit the tax return until December 1, 2017

If you file a Chapter 7 case before October 16, 2020, you would not discharge the $10,000 tax. You’d continue owing the $10,000 tax, plus the accruing interest and penalties.

However, under many circumstances if you file on or after October 16, 2020 you would discharge all of the $10,000. You would no longer owe any of it, including the interest and penalties.

Why the total difference? Because as of October 16, 2020:

  1. At least 3 years would have passed since the extended tax return due date of October 16, 2017, and also
  2. At least 2 years would have passed since actually submitting the tax return on December 1, 2017.

Other Conditions

Earlier we said that are other conditions to meet besides the two timing ones referred to here. So what are those other conditions that would result in an income tax not being discharged, even after meeting the above 2-year and 3-year conditions?

There are three other conditions or situations to look out for:

  1. Tax Fraud or Evasion:  The Bankruptcy Code says you can’t get a discharge of a tax for which you “made a fraudulent return or willfully attempted in any manner to evade or defeat such tax.” Section 523(a)(1)(C).  The problem is that language is quite vague. So bankruptcy judges interpret this language differently. For example, is it a willful attempt to evade a tax if you don’t submit the tax return when due, even if you submitted it voluntarily a year later? Talk with your bankruptcy lawyer about how your local bankruptcy court interprets this language. 
  2. Income Tax Liens: Once the IRS or state tax agency records a tax lien, that puts a legal cloud over either all your personal or real property, or both. Depending on what you own, that can turn a tax debt that bankruptcy will discharge in full into one that you still have to pay in full or in part. A tax lien creates complications that you need to thoroughly discuss with your bankruptcy lawyer.
  3. Offer in Compromise/Prior Bankruptcy: Have you made an “offer in compromise” to the IRS or state to settle the debt? Have you filed a prior bankruptcy case involving this same tax debt? Under these rather unusual circumstances there are some additional timing rules. Tell your lawyer if either of these circumstances applies to you, in order to meet the special rules.  

Conclusion

Assuming these three special conditions do not apply, and you’ve met the 2-year and 3-year conditions, a Chapter 7 case should discharge your tax debt.

 

Tax Filing and Payment Extended to July 15

March 23rd, 2020 at 7:00 am

The federal April 15, 2020 tax filing and payment deadlines have been postponed to July 15, 2020.  Also, no interest or penalties accrue. 

 

Federal Income Tax Return Deadline Postponed

Responding to the COVID-19 pandemic, the IRS has postponed the deadline to file federal income tax returns by 3 months. This was announced (on Twitter, no less!) on Friday, March 20, and then explained in more detail on Saturday.

This tax return postponement applies to all individuals, but also more broadly. It includes every legal “person”:  “an individual, a trust, estate, partnership, association, company or corporation.” IRS Notice 2020-18. So it covers all individuals and businesses.  

Federal Income Tax Payment Due Date Postponed

Just as important, the date that tax payments are due is also postponed from April 15 to July 15, 2020. (The IRS actually announced this two days earlier, on Wednesday, March 18, 2020. IRS Notice 2020-17.)

This applies more broadly than just taxes due for the 2019 tax year. For those paying estimated income taxes quarterly, the payment that was due April 15 is now instead due on July 15, 2020.

There’s no limit to the amount of tax amount postponed. There was a prior maximum amount postponed (in IRS Notice 2020-17) but that maximum has been eliminated. IRS Notice 2020-18, Section III, paragraph 2.

No Interim Interest and Penalties

Since taxes previously due on April 15 are now due on July 15, 2020, no interest or penalties will accrue during those 3 months. As the official Notice states:

the period beginning on April 15, 2020, and ending on July 15, 2020, will be disregarded in the calculation of any interest, penalty, or addition to tax for failure to file the Federal income tax returns or to pay the Federal income taxes postponed by this notice. Interest, penalties, and additions to tax… will begin to accrue on July 16, 2020.

IRS Notice 2020-18, Section III, paragraph 5.

No Extension Needed

This postponement of tax returns and tax payments is automatic. You don’t need to file any extension forms.

If you’ll need more time past July 15, the IRS says:

Individual taxpayers who need additional time to file beyond the July 15 deadline can request a filing extension by filing Form 4868 through their tax professional, tax software or using the Free File link on IRS.gov. Businesses who need additional time must file Form 7004.

IR-2020-58.

Tax Refunds Not Affected?

You may well be expecting a tax refund and so want to file as soon as possible. The IRS is encouraging you to do so:

The IRS urges taxpayers who are due a refund to file as soon as possible. Most tax refunds are still being issued within 21 days.

IR-2020-58. If you need your refund, the pandemic makes it all the more important to file as soon as possible.

ONLY April 15, 2020 Deadlines Affected

Things are changing fast, but at the moment this postponement does not apply to any other deadlines. For example, there’s no current extension for the March 16, 2020 deadline for corporate tax returns for tax year 2019 or the May 15, 2020 deadline for tax-exempt organizations. Also, the regular filing/payment date of July 15, 2020 still applies for quarterly filers. Again, these may also change.

State Income Tax Deadlines

Many states with income taxes have already matched the IRS’s postponement of tax returns and payments. For example:

  • California had earlier postponed to June 15 but extended to July 15 to match the IRS.
  • New Jersey’s legislature unanimously passed a bill last week to the likely same effect.
  • Montana’s governor on Friday postponed state filing and payment deadlines to April 15.
  • Arizona’s governor and then its Dept. of Revenue postponed the April deadlines to July.

It’s reasonable to believe that all or most states will follow the IRS’ lead, and do so quickly. So, please check with your own state’s taxing authority for updates.

 

Call today for a FREE Consultation

210-342-3400

Facebook Blog
Back to Top Back to Top