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Bankruptcy Helps You Afford Your Mortgage

July 22nd, 2019 at 7:00 am

Bankruptcy frees up cash flow for your mortgage payments. Chapter 7 does so by writing off other debts. Chapter 13 does so more creatively. 


 

Both Chapter 7 and Chapter 13 Improve Your Cash Flow

A Chapter 7 “straight bankruptcy” case would very likely quickly write off (“discharge”) many of your debts. For many people it discharges most of their debts, maybe even all of them except their home mortgage. That frees up cash flow so that you can better afford to pay your mortgage.

A Chapter 13 “adjustment of debts” case is different but has a similar result. It would very likely reduce payments on most or all of your non-mortgage debts. The amount you pay monthly on your debts is often radically reduced. Plus Chapter 13 deals much better with a variety of dangerous debts. The end result is also to free up cash flow so that you can better afford to pay your mortgage.

Let’s take a closer look at these two options.

Chapter 7 Helps You Pay Your Mortgage

Are you current or almost current on your home mortgage, but only because you are not making required payments on some of your other debts? And/or are you not spending what you reasonably should be on expenses such as food, clothing, or doctor/dental visits?

Chapter 7 legally allows you to immediately stop paying most of your debts. This is accomplished through the “automatic stay,” which stops virtually all collection activity against you. (Section 362 of the U.S. Bankruptcy Code.)

Then, under Chapter 7 the bankruptcy court discharges these debts 3 to 4 months after you file your case. (Section 727 of the Bankruptcy Code.)

So if you’ve been struggling to pay your mortgage, Chapter 7 gives you huge relief. You immediately don’t have to pay some or all of other debts that you’ve been paying. So you can better afford to pay your home mortgage.

If you’ve not been paying creditors you should have been, Chapter 7 stops them from coming after you later.  This prevents them from suing you and garnishing your wages, taking away your ability to pay your mortgage later. So you get long-term relief.

Also, you can better afford to pay essential home obligations, like your property taxes and homeowner’s insurance. If you are behind on either of these, Chapter 7 helps with this immediately and long-term.

Chapter 13 Helps You Pay Your Mortgage, Helping Both Less and More

A Chapter 13 case may help your cash flow differently than Chapter 7. Usually you do continue paying something to all your creditors (although not always). However, if you have certain special debts, Chapter 13 helps your cash flow much more than Chapter 7.

Chapter 13 also helps more than Chapter 7 if you are behind on or struggling to pay your mortgage, your homeowner’s insurance, or the property taxes.

Let’s look separately at these two ways Chapter 13 help more than Chapter 7.

Chapter 13 Helps Your Cash Flow More if You Have Certain Kinds of Debts

Chapter 7 does not discharge all debts. Back child and spousal support, other divorce-related debts, recent income taxes, and student loans usually are not discharged. If you owe any of those, you will have to continue paying them. In the case of child/spousal support, the filing a Chapter 7 case does not stop its collection at all. (Section 362(b)(2) of the Bankruptcy Code.) With the other debts, collection against you can resume 3-4  months later when the case is completed. (Section 362(c)(2).)

In contrast, filing a Chapter 13 case does stop the collection of these “nondischargeable” debts. As with Chapter 7, the “automatic stay” protection against collection ends when the Chapter 13 case is finished. But with a successful Chapter 13 case that usually doesn’t happen for 3 to 5 years.

More importantly, Chapter 13 provides a great way for you to pay these special kinds of debts in the meantime. You do so based on a reasonable budget, while being protected from all of your creditors. So when your Chapter 13 payment plan is finished, you have paid off or brought current your nondischargeable debts. You no longer need the “automatic stay” protection.

By forcing these special creditors to accept payments based on your budget, you protect your ability to pay your mortgage. 

Chapter 13 Helps You Catch up on Your Home Mortgage, Insurance, and Taxes

If you are behind on your mortgage payments, Chapter 13 provides one of the best ways possible to catch up. You have 3 to 5 years to catch up. You do have to continue/resume making your ongoing monthly mortgage payments. The arrearage catch-up payments are incorporated into your single monthly Chapter 13 plan payment. As mentioned above, that plan payment amount is based on your reasonable budget. Other more urgent obligations (such as catching up on child support or maybe a vehicle payment) can sometimes go ahead of catching up on your mortgage for a while. So Chapter 13 can be quite flexible.

If you are behind on homeowner’s insurance, that’s a serious problem. That alone is grounds for foreclosure of your mortgage. The lender will very likely impose its own very expensive “force-placed” insurance, wasting a lot of your money. This often aggravates your already difficult situation. Chapter 13 eases your cash flow so that you can afford to pay your insurance. To the extent force-placed insurance is already in the arrearage amount you owe, Chapter 13 provides a reasonable way to pay it.

If you’re behind on your home’s property taxes, that also is a separate ground for foreclosure. Whether the taxes are part of your mortgage payment or you pay it separately, Chapter 13 can solve this problem. As with homeowner’s insurance, if your lender already paid the taxes, you catch up on that along with the mortgage arrearage. If you pay taxes separately, you catch up with the taxing authority directly, as part of your 3-to-5 year payment plan. Both your mortgage lender and the taxing authority have to cooperate, as long as you fulfill your Chapter 13 obligations. 

Conclusion

Chapter 7 helps very directly, by discharging other debt so that you can better afford to pay your mortgage. Chapter 13 helps by providing a better way to deal with especially dangerous debts that Chapter 7 doesn’t handle well.

 

Catching up on Property Taxes on Other Than Your Home

August 14th, 2017 at 7:00 am

If behind on property taxes on property that isn’t your home, either Chapter 7 or Chapter 13 may buy you the time to save this property. 

 

For most people who are behind on property taxes on their real estate, that real estate is their home. And they have a mortgage on that real estate. See our last blog post about catching up on your property taxes on your mortgaged home.

But you may own real estate that isn’t your home, on which you are behind on property taxes. This comes up in a number of scenarios. Today we’ll look at mortgaged investment property on which you’ve fallen behind on property taxes.

First Problem—The Unhappy Mortgage Lender

Again, see our last blog post about why mortgage lenders get very concerned when borrowers fall behind on property taxes. What we said there about mortgaged homes applies as well to investment and other types of real estate.

Briefly, being behind on property taxes is virtually always a breach of your agreement with the mortgage lender. That’s because the property tax is “senior” to the mortgage, meaning a property tax foreclosure would wipe out the mortgage lender’s lien on the property. That’s very dangerous for the lender, so it acts aggressively to get you current on the taxes. This may include the lender paying the tax and then coming after you to pay it back. And if you don’t the lender can start its own foreclosure, even if you’re current on the mortgage itself.

Bankruptcy can solve this problem, one of two ways. A Chapter 7 case “discharges” your other debts so that you can afford to bring your property tax current. And if that doesn’t happen fast enough, a Chapter 13 case buys you more time, up to 5 years. Your court-approved payment plan gives you an affordable, flexible, and protected way to accomplish this.

Second Problem—Justifying Keeping the Property

The bankruptcy system has no trouble helping you pay debts related to your home. Other real estate can get trickier.

If you have investment property, you may need to justify that it’s financially sensible to keep that property. Specifically, you’ll likely have to justify spending money to catch up on the taxes.

For example, is the real estate worth more than you owe on it, including the taxes? If so, that more easily justifies paying the taxes to save your equity in the property.

Also, does the investment real estate generate a positive cash flow? If so, that also more easily justifies paying the taxes to preserve this positive cash flow.

If your investment property has negative equity and/or negative cash flow, it’s hard to justify keeping the property.

Why Does the Bankruptcy System Care?

It cares for budgeting and liquidation purposes.

To go through a Chapter 7 case you must pass the “means test.” That essentially requires showing that you don’t have the means to pay a meaningful amount to your general unsecured creditors. And that in turn usually requires showing a detailed budget. That budget includes a list of allowed expenses. Depending on the circumstances (including the equity/cash flow issues touched on above), you may not be able to include expenses on a financially unnecessary or unjustifiable investment property.

Under Chapter 13 case you pay what you can afford to pay to your creditors through a 3-to-5-year payment plan. As under Chapter 7, you have to justify paying property taxes on a property that isn’t your home. If that property is generating income and helping to pay the other creditors, putting money into that property to pay its taxes is more defensible. If the property is a cash drain justifying putting “good money after bad” into it would be hard to defend.

As for the liquidation issue, in a Chapter 7 case the bankruptcy trustee can liquidate anything that isn’t protected. The protection is mostly in the form of exemptions—property you’re allowed to keep. The Chapter 7 trustee will be inclined to take and liquidate your investment property if it will generate any cash for your other creditors.

Chapter 13 provides a way for you to protect assets you could otherwise lose in a Chapter 7 case. Essentially you pay more into your payment plan to cover the amount of money would have gone to your creditors in a liquidation of your investment property. That may be feasible, depending on your cash flow and on the liquidation value of that property.

Conclusion

Notice that there are some potential Catch-22s when dealing with investment real estate on which you owe property taxes. For example, having equity in the property makes it more prone to liquidation under Chapter 7, but having no equity makes keeping it and curing the taxes harder to justify. Under Chapter 13, a positive cash flow from the investment is important to justify catching up on the taxes. But there’s a good chance you don’t currently have a positive cash flow but rather are just expecting that to happen when certain things fall into place.

So figuring out how to deal with an investment property with owed taxes involves some careful financial and legal judgment calls. This is exactly the kind of situation you need the good counsel of savvy and conscientious bankruptcy lawyer.

 

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210-342-3400

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