Blog
Law Offices of Chance M. McGhee

Call Today for a FREE Consultation

210-342-3400

Archive for the ‘median income’ tag

Disadvantages of a Badly-Timed 5-Year Chapter 13 Case

December 31st, 2018 at 8:00 am

Following up on last week’s scenario, here are the financial, credit record, and other disadvantages of a forced 5-year Chapter 13 plan.   

 

Our last two blog posts were about how the last 6 calendar months of income of a person filing a Chapter 13 case can determine whether his or her Chapter 13 payment plan lasts only 3 years or instead a full 5 years. We showed how even relatively small shifts in income can cause this huge difference.

The last blog post gave a scenario illustrating how this would work in a real-life situation. It showed how under certain circumstances one person would have a 3-year payment plan if he or she filed a Chapter 13 case in January but a 5-year plan if filed in February.  Today we look at the financial and other consequences of this difference, and some other practical considerations.

Filing a Chapter 13 Case in January vs. February 2019

Our scenario involved a person receiving an extra $2,500 in income in January 2019 from a temporary holiday job. (That’s in addition to the $3,000 every month from the person’s regular job.) Because of the way income is calculated, that $2,500 would push this person over the median family income threshold, but only IF that income is counted. Filing the Chapter 13 case in January would result in that extra $2,500 NOT being counted. That’s because you count only the last 6 FULL CALENDAR MONTHS’ income (and double that for the annual amount). Those 6 months with a January filing are July through December 2018. You DON’T count the income of the month you’re filing the case—in this situation, January.

When filing the Chapter 13 case in February you DO COUNT the extra $2,500 in determining the plan’s length. That’s because the last 6 full calendar months are then August 2018 through January 2019, including the $2,500.

Financial Consequences

Our scenario assumed that your budget requires you to pay $300 per month into your Chapter 13 plan. If you have to pay that for 5 years instead of 3, that’s 2 more years of payments. 24 months of $300 payments totals $7,200. That’s a lot of extra money to pay just because you happened to file your Chapter 13 case in February instead of January.

That could potentially include filing the case just one day later—February 1 instead of January 31. Again, that’s because when filing on February 1 you must include January’s income—including the extra $2,500. When filing on January 31 you don’t include January’s income, avoiding that very troublesome $2,500.

Of course if your monthly Chapter 13 plan payment would be larger than $300, the extra money you pay will be that much more. For example, a $500 monthly plan payment would mean an extra $6,000 paid during the extra two years.

In addition, the longer your case lasts the more likely that your income would increase during your case. That may well require you to increase your monthly plan payment. That would result in you paying that much more during the final two years.

For example, assume you’re paying $500 per month into your payment plan from the beginning of your case. After 3 years you get a new job or a promotion increasing your income by $300 per month. If you had a 3-year plan (based on your initial income calculation) you’d be finishing your Chapter 13 case then. You’d pay nothing more into the payment plan; you’d get to keep all your income, including the pay increase.

Instead, if you’re in a 5-year plan you’d have two more years to go. You may well have to increase your $500 plan payments by $300 to $800 monthly. $800 per month for the final two years would mean an additional $19,200 paid to your creditors. And this could happen merely by filing your case with unwise timing!

Credit Record Consequences

These financial consequences of a longer case are bad enough. But the intangible consequences could be pretty bad as well.

Having your case last 2 years longer means 2 more years before you can really rebuild your credit. To some extent you may be able to build some positive credit history DURING a Chapter 13 case. That can happen if as part of the case you’re making regular contractual payments on your home or vehicle. But you’re still in the midst of a bankruptcy case, which harms your credit record. The sooner you complete your Chapter 13 case the better for credit purposes.

Two extra years in your case means that much longer before you’re free of the Chapter 13 trustee’s supervision. That likely means two more years that the trustee can take your income tax refunds to benefit your creditors. And, as described above, that’s two more years that increases in income could go, partly or fully, to your creditors.

Also, it’s 2 more years of the risk that you won’t finish your case successfully. To get some of the most important benefits of a Chapter 13 case you must complete it.  The longer a case lasts the more opportunities for things to happen that jeopardize a successful completion.

Lastly, being in a Chapter 13 case can be emotionally challenging. You wouldn’t be in it unless it was providing you significant financial benefits. (For example, saving your home and/or your vehicle(s), paying your income taxes or child support while protected from these creditors.) But you are in a sort of financial limbo. It feels very good to finish it and get it over with. You definitely want to do so in 3 years instead of 5 if you can.

 “Three-Year Plans” that Last Longer

One last thing: a Chapter 13 plan that is allowed to be finished in 3 years may last longer. Your income may allow you to have a 3-year plan but you can chose to have it last longer. The law provides that the bankruptcy “court, for cause,” may approve a length up to 5 years.

Many things that could push your allowed-to-be-3-year plan to be longer. You may want to pay for something—a home mortgage arrearage or priority income taxes, for example—and need more time to do so within a reasonable budget. So your plan may last up to 5 years in order for it to accomplish what you need it to.

IF this applies to you, being required to pay for 5 years because of your income may not be a practical disadvantage. On the other hand, you certainly don’t want to stumble into a 5-year Chapter 13 case simply because you didn’t time it well.

Talk with an experienced and conscientious bankruptcy lawyer to learn where your own unique circumstances puts you in all this.

 

An Example Why Passing the Means Test May Be Easier in 2018

November 19th, 2018 at 8:00 am

Filing bankruptcy before the end of December may help you qualify for Chapter 7 bankruptcy. Here’s an example showing how this could work.  

 

The month of December is the month that people receive more income than any other month of the year. According to the federal Bureau of Economic Analysis (part of the U.S. Department of Commerce), for at least the past 9 years (2009 through 2017) U.S. personal income was the highest in December than in any other calendar month.

This may well be true for you personally. You may work a part-time seasonal job this time of year to help make ends meet. You may be getting a few larger paychecks because of more work hours or overtime. Or you may be fortunate enough to get a holiday or year-end bonus.

Last week’s blog post explained how filing bankruptcy during December can be smart if you receive extra income that month. It can help you qualify for Chapter 7, and avoid being forced into a 3-to-5-year Chapter 13 case. Today we lay out an example to show how this would work.

The Example

Let’s assume that the median income amount for your family size in your state is $64,577.

(That’s the current amount for a family of 3 in Kentucky. You can find the median income amount applicable to you on this chart. It’s from the means testing webpage of the U.S. Trustee Program. The chart is current for bankruptcies filed starting November 1, 2018, and is updated about three times a year.)

Assume that your regular family monthly gross income is $5,000, which would give you an annual income of $60,000. That’s less the median income amount of $64,577 provided above. So you’d think that you’d easily pass the means test.

But let’s also assume that you and/or your spouse were to receive an extra $2,500 during December. This money could be from a seasonal job, overtime, a bonus, or just about any other source.

Filing Bankruptcy During December

What would happen here if you filed a Chapter 7 bankruptcy case during December? The income that would count for the means test would be what you received during the six full calendar months before the date of filing. You don’t count anything received in December; only income during June through November counts.  That would be 6 months of $5,000, or $30,000; multiply that by two for an annual income of $60,000.  

Since $60,000 is less than the $64,577 applicable median family income amount, you’d handily pass the means test. You’d qualify to file a Chapter 7 case.

Waiting to File Bankruptcy After December

If instead you tried to file a Chapter 7 case in January, your income under the means test would be higher. The pertinent 6-month full calendar month period would now be from last July through December.  On top of the usual $5,000 income for 6 months—$30,000—you’d add the extra $2,500 money received in December. So the 6-month total would be $32,500. Multiply that by two for an annual income of $65,000.

Since $65,000 is more than the $64,577 applicable median family income amount you’d not immediately pass the means test. You may not qualify for filing a Chapter 7 case. Instead of likely being able to discharge (legally write off) many or possibly all of your debts within about 4 months you may be forced to pay on them for 3 to 5 years in a Chapter 13 case.

Having Income More Than Median Family Income

Even in this scenario of too much income, there’s a chance you could still pass the means test and qualify for Chapter 7. You’d complete the very complicated 9-page Chapter 7 Means Test Calculation form. Then if your “allowed expense deductions” leave you with too low of “monthly disposable income” you’d still pass the means test. (Whether your “monthly disposable income” is low enough turns on a formula comparing that amount to the amount of your “total nonpriority unsecured debt.”) Or you might also qualify for Chapter 7 by having expenses that qualify under “special circumstances.”

But these alternative ways of trying to qualify for Chapter 7 are much riskier than simply having less income than your applicable median family income amount. Our example above shows how to accomplish this with smart timing. You may be able to do the same by simply filing your case in December, or in whatever month would be most favorable for you.

 

Pass the Means Test by Filing Bankruptcy in 2018

November 12th, 2018 at 8:00 am

The timing of your bankruptcy filing can determine whether you qualify for quick Chapter 7 vs. paying into a Chapter 13 plan for 3-5 years.

 

Timing Can Be SO Important

There are lots of ways you could greatly benefit from meeting with a bankruptcy lawyer sooner rather than later. You may save yourself lots of money by choosing an option that would not be available to you later. 

There are many situations this could happen. Today we’ll address how filing sooner—say, before the end of 2018—might enable someone to pass the “means test” when that might not be possible later. Passing the means test means you’d likely qualify to file a Chapter 7 “straight bankruptcy” case. Otherwise you may be required to file a Chapter 13 “adjustment of debts” case.

Chapter 13 can be great in the right circumstances. But you don’t want to be forced into filing one quickly because you’re desperate for immediate relief from your creditors. If you had to file a Chapter 13 case because you didn’t have the flexibility to strategically time your filing, this could easily cost you many thousands of dollars. It could mean that you couldn’t discharge most of your debts in a matter of 3-4 months without paying anything on them vs. paying on those debts for 3 to 5 years.

Timing and Income in the Means Test

The means test requires people who have the “means” to do so, to pay a meaningful amount on their debts. If you don’t pass the means test you’re effectively stuck with filing a Chapter 13 case.

Be aware that a majority of people who need a Chapter 7 case successfully pass the means test. The most direct way to do so is if your income is no larger than the published “median income” amounts designated for your state and family size. What’s crucial here is the highly unusual way the means test defines income. This unusual definition creates potential timing advantages and disadvantages.

The Means Test Definition of Income

When considering income for purposes of the means test, don’t think of income as you normally would. Instead:

1) Consider almost all sources of money coming to you in just about any form as income. Included, for example, are disability, workers’ compensation, and unemployment benefits; pension, retirement, and annuity payments received; regular contributions for household expenses by anybody, including a spouse or ex-spouse; rental or other business income; interest, dividends, and royalties. Pretty much the only money excluded are those received under the Social Security Act, including retirement, disability (SSDI), Supplemental Security Income (SSI), and Temporary Assistance to Needy Families (TANF).

2) The period of time that counts for the means test is exactly the 6 full calendar months before your bankruptcy filing date. Included as income is ONLY the money you receive during those specific months. This excludes money received before that 6-month block of time. It also excludes any money received during the calendar month that you file your Chapter 7 case. To clarify this, if you filed a Chapter 7 case this December 15th, your income for the means test would include all money received from exactly June 1 through November 30 of this year. It would exclude money received before June 1 or received from December 1 through the date of filing.

The Effect of this Unusual Definition of Income

This timing rule means that your means test income can change depending on what month you file your case. To the extent you have flexibility over when to file, and if there are any shifts in the money you receive over time, you have some control over how much your income is for the means test when you do file your case.

So if you receive an unusual amount of money anytime in December, it doesn’t count if you file a Chapter 7 case by December 31. This unusual amount of money might be an employer’s annual bonus, a contribution from a parent or relative to help you pay expenses, or an unexpected catch-up payment of spousal/child support. Remember, if you file bankruptcy in December, only money received June through November gets counted.

Even relatively small differences in money received can make an unexpectedly big difference. That’s because the six-month income total is doubled to arrive at the annual income amount. So for example let’s say you got an extra $1,500 from whatever source(s) in December. If you file in December that extra doesn’t count, as just discussed above. But if you wait until January to file, December money is counted becasue the pertinent 6-month period is now July 1 through December 31. That extra $1,500 gets doubled, increasing your annual income by $3,000. That could push you above the designated “median income” for your state and family size. If so you’d likely not pass the means test and not qualify for Chapter 7, leaving you with Chapter 13 as your only option.

Conclusion

It is a fact that most people wait way too long before their initial consultation meeting with a bankruptcy lawyer. There are many very understandable reasons for this. But do yourself a favor and be the exception. See a lawyer not because you’re at the very end of your rope and need immediate relief from your creditors. Instead see one because you want to learn about your options. Do this sooner and you may have some significantly money-saving options that you might not have had otherwise. 

 

Good Timing Can Shorten Your Chapter 13 Case by 2 Years

October 11th, 2017 at 7:00 am


We show how wise timing in your filing of a Chapter 13 “adjustment of debts” case could shorten your payment plan from 5 years to 3 years.  


Chapter 7 vs. Chapter 13

Two days ago we showed the importance of timing in the filing of a Chapter 7 case. The timing can affect whether you can qualify to be in a Chapter 7 “straight bankruptcy” case. If your income is too high you may not pass the “means test.” If you can’t pass this test you’d instead have to go through a Chapter 13 “adjustment of debts” case. That requires you to pay for 3 to 5 years into a payment plan, instead of being able to “discharge” (write off) all or most of your debts within about 4 months.

But what if you need a Chapter 13 case? It can be the much better option in certain circumstances. If you have debts that can’t be discharged like recent income taxes or child/spousal support, or debts you want to catch up on like a home mortgage, Chapter 13 buys you time to take care of those special debts. There are many other reasons Chapter 13 may be better for you than Chapter 7.

So assume you want to file a Chapter 13 case. One important question is how long you will be required to pay into your payment plan. Sometimes you’d want to have as much time as possible to stretch out and lower your plan payments. But in other circumstances you’d just want to get it over with as soon as possible. Then you can get on with life, and if you want start rebuilding your credit.

Your “Income” Dictates the Length of Your Chapter 13 Case

There is no “means test” under Chapter 13. Yet the same unusual way of calculating income in the Chapter 7 “means test” is used in Chapter 13. That same unusual calculation of income determines whether your payment plan can be 3 years long or instead must last 5 years.

So let’s look briefly again at how income is calculated.

The Chapter 13 Calculation of Income

To calculate your income for this purpose:

  • includes almost all sources of money other than from Social Security (not just taxable income)
  • total all gross amounts received precisely during the 6 FULL calendar months prior to filing your case
  • multiply this 6-month amount by 2 for the annual “income” total
  • compare that annualized amount to the “median income” for your state and family size

You may finish your Chapter 13 case in 3 years instead of 5 if your income is no larger than the applicable “median income” for your state and family size.

The “median income” amounts are adjusted regularly and are available online. You can find those state-by-state amounts for cases filed starting May 1, 2017 and for several months thereafter here. (And if you’re reading this well after this date, check here to see if this table has subsequently been updated.)

If you want you can go through each of the specific steps in this calculation right on the official bankruptcy court form. Download or print the Chapter 13 Statement of Your Current Monthly Income and Calculation of Commitment Period (effective 12/1/15).

How Smart Timing of Filing Can Make Such a Difference

See our last blog post for an example how even just a day or two difference in the date of filing a case can put you over or under your applicable “median income” amount.

This is even more crucial in Chapter 13 than in Chapter 7. In Chapter 7 the income step is just the first step of the “means test.” Even with higher-than-median income you may be able to pass the “means test” based on your expenses or other considerations. But under Chapter 13 your income as calculated above determines whether or not you’re required to be in it for 5 years.

Important Practical Notes

Even if your income ALLOWS you to finish in 3 years you can usually take longer if you want. As mentioned above, you may want to stretch out and so reduce your monthly payments. But in this situation you’d not be REQUIRED to go the full 5 years. And you generally don’t pay any more to your creditors while doing so.

Also, if you ARE required to go the full 5 years based on your income that doesn’t always hurt you. To pay everything you want and need to pay may take that long, without necessarily paying more to your creditors.

However, there ARE situations in which based on your budget you could finish your payment plan in 3 years. Or other situations in which you could finish sometime between 3 and 5 years. In these situations being required to go the full 5 years means paying more to your creditors—sometimes much more. And it delays getting to that point in time when you can actually start your fresh financial start.

 

Timing Can Be Crucial for Passing the Means Test

July 10th, 2017 at 7:00 am

With smart timing you can take advantage of the unusual way that your “income” is calculated for the Chapter 7 means test.  

Passing the Means Test

We introduced the means test a couple of weeks ago and said that many people pass this test simply by having low enough income.  Their income is no larger than the published median income for their state and family size.

We also explained that income for this purpose has an unusual definition. It includes:

  • not just employment income but virtually all funds received from all sources—including from irregular ones like child and spousal support payments, insurance settlements, cash gifts from relatives, and unemployment benefits (but excluding Social Security);
  • funds received ONLY during the 6 FULL CALENDAR months before the date of filing, multiplied by two for the annual amount.

In other words, if you file a Chapter 7 case on any day of July, you count all funds received during the period January 1 through June 30. Then you double it and compare that to the applicable median income amount.

This very broad definition of “income” received within this very definite time period has some important tactical consequences for you. Under the right facts your “income” for the means test could shift significantly if you file your Chapter 7 case one month vs. the next. It could increase or reduce your “income” by enough to qualify or not qualify under Chapter 7.

We’ll show how this is possible through the following example.

An Example

Assume the following facts:

  • You have employment income grossing $3,750 per month that you consistently earned and received through the last several years.
  • Back in January you also received a modest auto insurance settlement of $2,500 from an insurance company.
  • The median annual income for your state and family size is $46,412.

Your “income” for means test purposes in July is:

  • 6 times $3,750 employment income = $22,500.
  • $22,500 plus $2,500 insurance proceeds = $25,000 total income from January 1 through June 30.
  • $25,000 times 2 = $50,000 annually.

Since $50,000 is more than the applicable median annual income amount of $46,412, you don’t pass the means test. (At least you don’t on the first income-only step. You may still pass by going through the expenses part of the test, but that’s beyond today’s blog post.)

So what happens if you don’t file your Chapter 7 case in July but rather wait until August? Here is the new income calculation:

  • 6 times $3,750 employment income = $22,500.
  • There’s no additional $2,500 from the insurance settlement because you received it in January while the pertinent 6-month period now is February 1 through July 31.
  • So $22,500 times 2 = $45,000 annually.

Since $45,000 is less than the applicable median annual income amount of $46,412, you now pass the means test. You qualify for Chapter 7. 

 

A Simple Example of Passing the Means Test

July 5th, 2017 at 7:00 am

 We show by example how the means test works, when a person qualifies for a Chapter 7 case simply by income.  


An Example is Worth a Thousand Words

You have to pass the means test to qualify for a Chapter 7 “straight bankruptcy. In a recent blog post we said that the easiest way to pass the means test is by your income. If your income is low enough you pass without having to look at your allowed expenses or special circumstances.  Let’s see how this works by way of an example.

Our Example—The Facts

Jeremy and Allison need bankruptcy relief. Their bankruptcy lawyer has recommended that they file a Chapter 7 case based on their circumstances. They have decided to do so.

They are both employed and get paychecks twice a month, on the 1st and 15th of the month. Jeremy has a gross income of $2,750 per month and Allison $3,250 per month.

They have two children who live with them in their home in Indiana.

“Income” for the Means Test

For purposes of the means test you count virtually all sources of incoming money (other than from Social Security). But you count only money received during the 6 FULL CALENDAR months before filing the Chapter 7 case.

Allison and Jeremy want to file their case during July. So they look at the income they’d received during the period from January 1 through June 30, the 6 full calendar months before. That’s 6 times $3,250 for Allison, or $19,500, plus 6 times $2,750 for Jeremy, or $16,500, or a combined $36,000. Multiply that by 2 to get an annual income of $72,000.

The Median Income for Your Family Size in Your State

Allison and Jeremy would pass the means test the most easily if their income, as just calculated, would be no larger than the median income amount for their family size in their state.

The median income amount for a group of people is similar to their average income amount, but not quite. It’s the amount at which half of the people have a greater income and half have less.

So for Jeremy and Allison, the median income is the amount at which half of the families of four people in Indiana have more income and half have less. How do they find out that amount?

It’s provided online by the U.S. Trustee. Here is a table showing the most current information of this writing. (This table is updated every few months so check here for more current median income tables.)

Notice that the median income for Jeremy and Allison’s family size and state is $77,566. Their income as calculated above, at $72,000, is less than this median income amount.

Conclusion

As a result Allison and Jeremy pass the means test simply on the basis of their income. They and their lawyer don’t need to go through the process of figuring out and deducting all their allowed expenses to find out if they pass the means test. Their income is low enough. It’s presumed that they don’t have enough money left over to pay a meaningful amount back to their creditors.

 

Household Size Really Matters for Passing the Means Test

June 30th, 2017 at 7:00 am

You can have more income for the purpose of passing the means test as your household size increases. But what IS your household’s size? 


Household Size in the Means Test

When introducing the means test a week ago we showed how passing that test often depends on your income. You start by comparing your income to the median income amount for your family size in your state.  As your family size increases you can have more income and still pass the means test.

For many people the size of their household is obvious. But not for everybody. Today’s blog post gets into how to figure out the size of your household when it isn’t obvious.

Where to Find the Definition of Household

The federal Bankruptcy Code does not provide a definition of household or how to determine its size.

The U.S. Trustee points us in the right direction. (That’s part of the U.S. Department of Justice which Congress tasked with enforcing the means test.) The U.S. Trustee has put out a “Statement of the U.S. Trustee’s Position on Legal Issues Arising under the Chapter 7 Means Test.” This Statement states:

  • “Household size” is the debtor, debtor’s spouse, and any dependents that the debtor could claim under IRS dependency tests. The USTP uses the same IRS test for the definition of both “household” and “family.”

It then refers to the Internal Revenue Service’s Publication 501 for the definition of dependent.

The IRS Definition

The IRS defines “dependent” (on page 11 of that Publication 501) as either a “qualifying child” or a “qualifying relative.” The IRS then spends 11 pages of fine print to explain its rules for those two terms. Here’s an overview of those rules. They are somewhat detailed but should help you determine your household size.

To be a “qualifying child”:

1. The child must be your son, daughter, stepchild, foster child, brother, sister, half-brother, half-sister, stepbrother, stepsister, or a descendant of any of them.

2. The child must be

(a) under age 19 at the end of the year and younger than you (or your spouse if filing jointly),

(b) under age 24 at the end of the year, a student, and younger than you (or your spouse if filing jointly), or

(c) any age if permanently and totally disabled.

3. The child must have lived with you for more than half of the year.

4. The child must not have provided more than half of his or her own support for the year.

5. The child must not be filing a joint return for the year (unless that joint return is filed only to claim a refund of withheld income tax or estimated tax paid). If the child meets the rules to be a qualifying child of more than one person, only one person can actually treat the child as a qualifying child.

To be a “qualifying relative”:

1. The person can’t be your qualifying child or the qualifying child of any other taxpayer.

2. The person either

(a) must be related to you in one of the ways listed under Relatives who don’t have to live with you, or

(b) must live with you all year as a member of your household2 (and your relationship must not violate local law).

3. The person’s gross income for the year must be less than $4,000.

4. You must provide more than half of the person’s total support for the year.

After All These Rules, One Important Twist

The U.S. Trustee’s Program’s Statement adds this potentially very important meaning of household:

The USTP departs from the IRS dependent test…  in cases justifying “reasonable exceptions” (e.g. a long standing economic unit of unmarried individuals and their children).

Considering how many millions of non-traditional households there are in the U.S., this “long standing economic unit” exception may be helpful for you in determining your household size and passing the means test. Talk with your local experienced bankruptcy lawyer about it.

 

No Means Test If You Have More Business Debts than Consumer Debts

June 26th, 2017 at 7:00 am

You only have to pass the means test if you have “primarily consumer debts.” If you have more business debts, skip the means test.  


The Consumer “Means Test”

Our last blog post introduced the “means test.” It’s used to see if you qualifying for Chapter 7 “straight bankruptcy.” If you don’t qualify, you may instead have to file a Chapter 13 “adjustment of debts” case requiring a 3-to-5-year payment plan.

But the means test only applies to consumer bankruptcy cases. Otherwise you can skip the means test.

The official Voluntary Petition for Individuals Filing Bankruptcy form asks the following two questions:

16a. Are your debts primarily consumer debts? Consumer debts are defined in 11 U.S.C. § 101(8) as “incurred by an individual primarily for a personal, family, or household purpose.”

16b. Are your debts primarily business debts? Business debts are debts that you incurred to obtain money for a business or investment or through the operation of the business or investment.

If you answer “no” to the first question (and usually “yes” to the second question), than you skip the means test. This can be a significant advantage because you may otherwise not qualify under Chapter 7.

How this Exception Fit’s into the Purpose of the Means Test

The purpose of the “means test” is to only allow you to go through a Chapter 7 case if you don’t have the “means” to pay a meaningful amount of your debts to your creditors. If your income is no more than the “median income” for your family size in your state, the law assumes you don’t have the “means” to do so. Next, if your income is more than the median amount, then your allowed expenses are carefully reviewed to see if you do have enough “means” left after your expenses.

When Congress created the means test, it decided to apply the test only to individual consumers, not to businesses and business owners.

The mechanism that Congress used to divide between consumers and business is the phrase: “primarily consumer debts.” All those with “primarily consumer debts” have to take the “means test” to qualify for Chapter 7 relief. Those without “primarily consumer debts” do not have to take the “means test.”

Not “Primarily Consumer Debts”

If the total amount of all your consumer debts is less than the total amount of all your non-consumer (business) debts, your debts are not “primarily consumer debts.” If so, you can avoid the “means test.”

Section 101(8) of the Bankruptcy Code defines a “consumer debt” at as one “incurred by an individual primarily for a personal, family, or household purpose.”

As you add up your consumer and non-consumer debts, realize that you may have more business debt than you think for two reasons.

First, debts that you would normally consider consumer debts might not be. For example, debts used to finance your business, even if otherwise straightforward consumer credit—credit cards, home equity lines of credit, and such—may qualify as non-consumer debt based on your business purpose of that credit. (Note the explanation to the question in the bankruptcy petition quoted above, that business debts include both those incurred in funding the business and in operating it.)

Second, some of your business debts may be larger than you think. For example, If you surrendered a leased business premises or business equipment you would likely be liable not just for the missed lease payments owed at the filing of the bankruptcy but also potentially for the string of future contractual payments, depreciation, and other possible charges.

Through a combination of these two considerations, your total business debt may be much more than you expected. So you might have more business debt than consumer debt.

Conclusion

You may not be in a position—given your income and the expenses you’re allowed—to pass the means test. If you have ANY business debts, be sure to ask your bankruptcy lawyer to see if you qualify for this not-“primarily consumer debt” exception.

 

The Chapter 7 Means Test

June 23rd, 2017 at 7:00 am

You have to pass the means test to qualify for a Chapter 7 case. It’s often an easy test to pass but one with some crucial twists and turns. 


The Purpose of the “Means Test”

You need to qualify to file a Chapter 7 “straight bankruptcy” case. The “means test” is the main step in qualifying. Its purpose is to not let you file a Chapter 7 case if you have the “means” to pay a meaningful amount to your creditors. If you do, then usually you would instead have to go through a Chapter 13 “adjustment of debts” case.

A consumer Chapter 7 case generally “discharges” (legally writes off) all or most of your debts. And it does so in a process that usually takes only 3 or 4 months.

In contrast a Chapter 13 case requires you to pay as much as you can reasonably pay to your creditors over a 3 to 5 year period. That usually means that under Chapter 13 your creditors get paid at least a portion of what you owe them. Often that portion is small, and sometimes most of your creditors actually get nothing. But the point is that Chapter 7 is SO much faster and easier. IF it’s the right option for you, you want to be able to qualify. And that means passing the means test.

Usually Easy, but Watch Out for the Twists and Turns

The reality is that most people who want to file under Chapter 7 can pass the means test. And most of those who pass do so quite easily.

Here’s why. There are a number of steps to the means test. But if you pass it on the first easiest step, then you’re done. You don’t have to go through the other more complicated steps.

This first step—the “median income” step—is relatively straightforward. But it has its own oddities—its twists and turns.

The “Median Income” Step

The idea behind this first step is that if your income is low enough, you have no money for creditors. You don’t have the “means” to pay a meaningful amount to the creditors.

If your income is low enough you pass the means test simply on the basis of your income. You don’t have to compare your income to your expenses to see if you have enough left over to pay to your creditors. (That’s the second step of the means test, if you don’t pass at this median income step.)

How low does your income need to be to pass the means test at this first step?

It can’t be more than the current median income amount for your state and your family size.

Median income is somewhat like the average income but not quite. It is the income amount at which half the people of the population have a lower income while half of the people has a higher income. The median income amounts for each state and family size are updated usually two or three times a year. The most recent update as of this writing was effective as of May 1, 2017. Tables of these median income amounts are published and made available.

“Income” Isn’t What You Think

“Income” has a very special and specific meaning here. To see if your income fits within your applicable median income amount, you need to know this meaning of “income.”

First, consider only money you received during precisely the SIX FULL calendar months before the filing of your bankruptcy case. For example, assume you are filing a Chapter 7 case on any day in the month of July. Then, you only count money you’d received from January 1 through June 30 of that year.

Second, we purposely said “money” instead of “income” here. That’s because you include virtually all money you received during the applicable six-month period from virtually all sources. It’s not just employment income, or money that’s taxable and shows up on your income tax return. Include essentially all sources of funds, except those received through any kind of Social Security benefit.

Once you have the total 6-month “income” amount, multiply it by 2 to get the annualized amount of “income.” Then compare that amount to the one for your state and family size in the published table.

Timing of Filing Often Changes Your “Income”

With this particular definition of “income,” whether you are above or below median income can change by the month. That’s especially true if you occasionally get money in irregular amounts and/or with irregular timing. Examples would be inconsistent child support, an annual or quarterly bonus from work, or any kind of lump sum distribution like a disability settlement or from a vehicle accident.   

An unusual payment can artificially inflate your “income” for the means test. A gap in usual payments can deflate your “income.” These can either push you temporarily above your applicable median income or below it. Because the impact is doubled (when you annualize the 6-months of income), even a moderate change can effect whether you pass this step of the means test.

The Rest of the “Means Test”

If your income is more than your applicable median income, you go to the second step of the means test. This involves a comparison of your income and allowed expenses to come up with your “disposable income.” The twist and turn here is in calculating your allowed expenses. We’ll get into that in our next blog post.

 

What Is Size of Your Family for the “Means Test”?

March 28th, 2016 at 7:00 am

You must use the right “number of people in your household” to qualify for Chapter 7. It’s not always obvious.

 

Our last blog post last week was about which state to use for the “means test” when you have connections to more than one state. The way you answer that question can be crucial for passing the “means test” and qualifying for Chapter 7 “straight bankruptcy.”

Same thing with the size of your family, as today’s blog post explains.

The Easiest Way to Pass the “Means Test”

As we’ve been saying, the easiest way to pass the ‘means test’ is for your family’s income to be no more than the published median family income amount for your family size in your state. Even if your income is higher, you might be able to pass the “means test” through a much more complicated and riskier method. But for today’s purposes we’re focusing on this most straightforward income-comparison method.

The Larger the Family the Larger the Median Family Income

Key to this income method is picking the right family size. As you might expect the larger the family, the higher the median family income amounts. This no doubt is in part because a “family” with only one person has only a single income earner, while one with two people potentially has 2 income earners, and so on average more income. Also, families with more children require more income, on average, to pay for the expenses of the additional children.

This is verified to be true for every single state if you take a look at the published median family income amounts provided by law (11 U.S.C. Section 101(39A)) by the U.S. Census Bureau. See this handy table of all of the states’ median family annual income amounts (effective starting April 1, 2016).

For example, in this table the median family income amounts in Utah are as follows, for families of:

  • one person, $54,314
  • two people, $59,972
  • three people, $67,082           
  • four people, $75,777
  • for each additional person, add $8,400

So, the larger you can truthfully and legally show that your family is, the more income you can have and still pass the “means test” by this most straightforward income method.

When Your Family Size is Unclear

These days less than half (46%) of children under 18 years old live in the “traditional” home of two married parents in their first marriage. In contrast 61% of children lived in such a home in 1980, and 73% did in 1960. So there are now lots more kids and step kids being raised in other circumstances: part-time in two different families, by single parents, by grandparents, and such.

So figuring out family size is a lot less simple than it used to be.

When in Doubt, What IS the Size of Your Family?

The simple answer to this question is: talk to the U.S. Trustee’s Office and to the IRS. Let us explain.

First of all, the answer is not to be found in the Bankruptcy Code. There is no definition of family or household size there.

Second, the U.S. Trustee Program is the arm of the U.S. Department of Justice that Congress tasked with enforcing the bankruptcy “means test.” As mentioned in the last blog post, the U.S. Trustee Program has put out a “Statement of [It’s] Position on Legal Issues Arising under the Chapter 7 Means Test.” As for family or household size, this Statement says:

  • “Household size” is the debtor, debtor’s spouse, and any dependents that the debtor could claim under IRS dependency tests. The USTP uses the same IRS test for the definition of both “household” and “family.”

It then refers to the IRS Publication 501 for its definition of dependent.

And third, the IRS defines “dependent” (see page 11 of that Publication 501) as either a “qualifying child” or a “qualifying relative.” The IRS then spends thousands of words on 11 pages of triple-column fine print to explain its rules for those two terms. But fortunately for us here, the IRS also provides an overview of those rules.

To be a “qualifying child”:

1. The child must be your son, daughter, stepchild, foster child, brother, sister, half brother, half sister, stepbrother, stepsister, or a descendant of any of them.

2. The child must be (a) under age 19 at the end of the year and younger than you (or your spouse if filing jointly), (b) under age 24 at the end of the year, a student, and younger than you (or your spouse if filing jointly), or (c) any age if permanently and totally disabled.

3. The child must have lived with you for more than half of the year.

4. The child must not have provided more than half of his or her own support for the year.

5. The child must not be filing a joint return for the year (unless that joint return is filed only to claim a refund of withheld income tax or estimated tax paid). If the child meets the rules to be a qualifying child of more than one person, only one person can actually treat the child as a qualifying child. See Qualifying Child of More Than One Person later [within Publication 501] to find out which person is the person entitled to claim the child as a qualifying child.

To be a “qualifying relative”:

1. The person can’t be your qualifying child or the qualifying child of any other taxpayer.

2. The person either (a) must be related to you in one of the ways listed under Relatives who don’t have to live with you, or (b) must live with you all year as a member of your household2 (and your relationship must not violate local law).

3. The person’s gross income for the year must be less than $4,000.

4. You must provide more than half of the person’s total support for the year.

One last twist—the U.S. Trustee’s Program’s Statement adds this:

The USTP departs from the IRS dependent test (as does the IRS when it determines family size for collection purposes) in cases justifying “reasonable exceptions” (e.g. a long standing economic unit of unmarried individuals and their children).

Determining family size sure isn’t so straightforward, is it?!

 

Call today for a FREE Consultation

210-342-3400

Facebook Blog
Back to Top Back to Top