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An Example of Money Saved through Vehicle Loan Cramdown

June 3rd, 2019 at 7:00 am

Here’s an example of vehicle loan cramdown that shows how you can reduce your vehicle payments and be free and clear after paying less. 

 

Our last 3 blog posts have been about Chapter 13 cramdown of a vehicle loan. Cramdown can reduce your loan’s monthly payments, its interest rate, and the total you pay for your vehicle. Often you end up saving a lot both monthly and on the total paid. 

The last three blog posts introduced how cramdown works, how to qualify for it, and how you don’t have to catch up on late payments. But like anything, explaining a bunch of rules only goes so far. Showing how the rules actually get applied can be the best way to make sense of a complicated concept like cramdown. A good example is like a picture: it’s worth a thousand words.

So today, how does cramdown work in real life?

The Facts of Our Example

Let’s say you are a payment behind on your vehicle loan. You’re about to miss a second payment, and you’re feeling desperate. You have made making your vehicle payments a priority but you have other debts that are putting intense pressure on you. Your vehicle is absolutely essential in your life so you know you have to do something.  

You know that to keep your vehicle you have to either get rid of or greatly reduce your other debts. Those other debts are medical bills and unsecured credit cards, all together totaling $75,000. You’re considering either Chapter 7 to write off those other debts or Chapter 13 to greatly reduce those debts.

Assume you bought your vehicle 3 years ago, it’s worth $9,000, but you still owe $15,000 on it. The contractual monthly payments are $550. Your budget, allowing for reasonable amounts for your living expenses, shows that you can afford to pay a total of $350 per month on all of your debts, including the vehicle loan.

Chapter 7 Doesn’t Help Enough Here

You understand that a Chapter 7 case would most likely write off (“discharge”) your entire $75,000 of unsecured debts. But even after that you’d really struggle to pay the $550 monthly vehicle payments. Plus you’d almost for sure have to catch up quickly on the $1,100 in late payments (2 times $550).  

How Chapter 13 Cramdown Helps More

Cramdown essentially allows you to re-write your vehicle loan based on the fair market value of your vehicle.

Cramdown helps you more financially the more that you owe on your vehicle than it’s worth. Plus it’s usually available only if your loan is more than 910 days old—about 2 and half years. (See the unnumbered “hanging paragraph” right after Section 1325(a)(9) of the U.S. Bankruptcy Code.) You qualify in our example because you bought your vehicle 3 years ago. (See exceptions to the 910-day qualification rule in our second-to-last blog post.)

Cramdown would rewrite your vehicle loan based on the $9,000 your vehicle is worth. The term of cramdown payments lasts between 36 to 60 months. Your interest rate is often reduced as well, depending on your contract interest rate. Plus, you don’t have to catch up on any missed payment.

This is contrast to Chapter 7, where almost always you have to accept all the contractual terms of the loan if you want to keep your vehicle. That includes catching up very quickly on any missed payments.  

Paying Less through Cramdown

What would be your monthly payment to pay off the $9,000 value of your car?  (That’s the secured portion of the $15,000 total vehicle debt.) Assume a 36-month Chapter 13 payment plan—the usual minimum length. Amortizing $9,000 over 36 months at 5% interest yields a monthly payment of about $270.

We said earlier that you can afford to pay all your debts $350 per month. (That includes the vehicle loan.) So your monthly Chapter 13 plan payment would be $350.  That would cover all your debts.

$350 monthly payments times 36 months equals $12,600 total paid. The vehicle lender would receive $9,000 of that, plus about $700 of interest over the 36 months. The Chapter 13 trustee gets a percentage—let’s say 4% of the total, so $504. Add up those amounts and we’ve accounted for $10,204 of the $12,600 total you’re paying. This leaves $2,396 remaining.

Assume in this example that you paid your bankruptcy lawyer up front. Otherwise part of his or her fee would be paid out of that remaining $2,396. But here all of that $2,396 would go to your pool of general unsecured debts. That includes the $75,000 of medical and credit card debts, plus the $6,000 unsecured portion of the vehicle loan. (That’s the part of the $15,000 total not covered by the vehicle’s value–$15,000 minus $9,000 = $6,000.)  $75,000 + this $6,000 = $81,000 in general unsecured debts.

The $2,396 left over is spread out pro rata to the $81,000 in general unsecured debts. This means that these debts will receive about 3% of the amount due. The unsecured $6,000 portion of the vehicle loan would thus get only about $180 of it paid.

The Final Numbers

Through the Chapter 13 vehicle cramdown in this example, you would pay to your vehicle lender the $9,000 vehicle value, plus about $700 in interest, plus the above $180, a total of about $9,880. You would not have to catch up on the $1,100 in late payments. This is in contrast to paying the $15,000 loan balance, plus likely about $2,000 in interest, or about $17,000. That’s what you would have to do to keep the car outside bankruptcy or under Chapter 7.

Under Chapter 13 your monthly payments on the vehicle would be $270 instead of $550. Your monthly plan payment would be $350—which includes the $270 to your vehicle lender. After 36 months of paying $200 less than you would have paid on your vehicle alone ($350 vs. $550), you would own your vehicle free and clear and would nothing to any of your other creditors.

 

Qualifying for a Vehicle Loan Cramdown

May 20th, 2019 at 7:00 am

To qualify for a Chapter 13 vehicle loan cramdown, mostly your loan must be at least two and a half years old. There are exceptions to this. 

 

Last week’s blog post was about lowering monthly vehicle loan payments through Chapter 13 cramdown. This also often reduces how much you end up paying on the loan, and often even reduces its interest rate. Cramdown usually saves you money both immediately and long term. And you end up owning your vehicle free and clear at the end of your Chapter 13 case.  

Today we get into how to qualify for cramdown.

Qualifying for Cramdown—Timing

You can only do a cramdown if your vehicle loan is more than 910 days old when you file your Chapter 13 case. 910 day is about two and a half years. If you entered into the vehicle loan less than 910 days earlier, you can’t do a cramdown. You can’t reduce the monthly payments or the total amount paid on the loan.

The Bankruptcy Code says that you can’t do a cramdown if “the debt was incurred within the 910-day [period] preceding the date of the filing of the [Chapter 13] petition.” See the “hanging paragraph” following Section 506(a)(9) of the U.S. Bankruptcy Code.

What’s the reason for this 910-day timing condition? It’s a benefit to vehicle lenders. New cars and trucks depreciate fast. You can’t buy a vehicle, have it depreciate quickly for a year or two, and then take advantage of the fact that the vehicle isn’t worth as much as you owe on it. You have to wait two and a half years before you can do this.

Qualifying for Cramdown—910-day Rule Doesn’t Apply

The 910-day rule applies only to vehicle loans that are for the purchase of the vehicle. Under the language of the Bankruptcy Code, the 910-day waiting period only applies when “the creditor has a purchase money security interest securing the debt.” See the same paragraph” following Section 506(a)(9) referred to above.

So a loan used to refinance a vehicle CAN be crammed down without waiting the 910 days. Also, if you borrowed money for some purpose and gave your vehicle as collateral for the loan, you can do a cramdown without waiting.  

This same 910-day waiting period also does not apply to vehicles purchased for business use. The Bankruptcy Code says the 910-day rule only applies if “the collateral for that debt consists of a motor vehicle… acquired for the personal use of the debtor.” See the same paragraph in the Bankruptcy we keep referring to.

There are open questions about both these “purchase money” and “personal use” conditions. For example, “personal use of the debtor” is not defined in the Bankruptcy Code. What about a pickup truck mostly used for operating a business but also used for personal transportation? Or how about a vehicle bought by a parent for the exclusive personal us of an adult child? Is that not the “personal use of the debtor” so that the 910-day rule does not apply?

The answers to these questions may turn on interpretations of the Code language by your local bankruptcy court. Talk with your bankruptcy lawyer about your own particular situation.

Qualifying for Cramdown—Undersecured Vehicle Loan

In case it’s not obvious, cramdown only works if your vehicle is worth less than the balance on your loan. You’re “cramming” the loan amount down to the secured amount of the debt. The more your loan is upside down the more cramdown can help.

If your vehicle is worth the same or more than you owe, there is no opportunity for cramdown. You might gain some other benefits on your vehicle loan from filing a Chapter 13 case, but no cramdown.

And how do you determine what your vehicle is worth for this purpose? For example, do you use “retail value” or “wholesale” or “trade-in” values? Should you use the Kelley or NADA Blue Book values or some other source? Again, these are questions for your bankruptcy lawyer, based on local law and practice.

Qualifying for Cramdown—Only in Chapter 13

Cramdown is not available under Chapter 7 “straight bankruptcy.” You must file a Chapter 13 “adjustment of debts” case. The payment and payoff terms of your cramdown are part of your 3-to-5-year Chapter 13 payment plan. In it you present the value of your vehicle, which indicates the secured part of your loan balance and the remaining unsecured part, and how much you intend to pay on each part.

(Cramdown is also available under Chapter 11 “reorganization,” which is generally used for corporate and other business bankruptcies. Section 1129(b)(2)(A). This blog post focuses instead on consumer oriented Chapter 13. But if you are operating a business or have unusually large debts, Chapter 11 may be an option to consider.)

 

Keep Your Vehicle by Reaffirming its Loan

April 29th, 2019 at 7:00 am

If you want to keep your vehicle and still pay on its loan, file a Chapter 7 case to write off other debts and reaffirm the vehicle loan.  

A Vehicle Loan is a Secured Debts

We started this series of blog posts on debts by introducing secured debts as follows:

Each of your debts is either secured by something you own or it is not. A secured debt is backed up by a lien, a legal interest of the creditor in some kind of property of yours. See Section 101(37) of the U.S. Bankruptcy Code.

Usually you know whether a debt is secured. For example, in the case of a vehicle loan the vehicle’s title states that your lender is the lienholder. That lien on the title makes the loan secured by the vehicle. That, together with the security agreement you signed, gives the lender certain rights over your vehicle.

Let’s assume that you have a vehicle that you are paying for through a vehicle loan. If you look at your vehicle’s title, your lender is listed as the lienholder on your vehicle. The loan documents include a security agreement that gives the lender the right to repossess the vehicle if you don’t make the loan payments.

Also let’s assume that you really want to keep your vehicle. One of the main reasons you are considering filing bankruptcy is to write off all or most of your other debts so you can afford to pay your vehicle loan.

Reaffirming the Vehicle Loan

Filing a Chapter 7 “straight bankruptcy” case could well accomplish this. It could permanently forgive (“discharge”) all or most of your other debts. That could free up enough of your monthly cash flow so you’d have money to pay your vehicle loan payments.

Talk with a bankruptcy lawyer to find out which of your own debts would be discharged. Bankruptcy discharges most debts, but there are quite a few exceptions. (See our last 10 blog posts about those exceptions.)  Your lawyer will help you put together your after–bankruptcy budget. From that you’ll see whether you’d be able to pay on your vehicle loan after discharging your other debts.

If so, filing a Chapter 7 case and signing a vehicle loan reaffirmation agreement may be your best option.

Reaffirmation Is a Voluntary Discharge Exception

A reaffirmation agreement excludes the vehicle loan from the discharge of debts Chapter 7 bankruptcy otherwise entitles you to. You enter into it voluntarily in return for getting to keep your vehicle.

It’s voluntary because you recognize that your lender has the right to take your vehicle if don’t make your payments. That doesn’t change when you file bankruptcy. The point of the reaffirmation agreement is to allow you to keep your vehicle.

Voluntarily Deciding Not to Reaffirm

You can file a bankruptcy case and choose NOT to reaffirm your vehicle loan. In a Chapter 7 case that would generally mean that you’d surrender the vehicle to your lender. The bankruptcy discharge would then virtually always write off any remaining debt you’d owe on the vehicle loan.

Think very seriously and open-mindedly about this option before you reaffirm the loan. Bankruptcy gives you a one-time opportunity to get out of the vehicle loan. Consider whether you would definitely be able to afford its monthly payments, insurance, maintenance and other costs. Find out what the vehicle is now worth compared to what you owe. Think creatively about other transportation options. Don’t just reaffirm the loan because you figure you have no other choice. Make it an informed choice, whichever way you choose.

The Risks of Reaffirming

A reaffirmation agreement excludes the vehicle loan from the bankruptcy discharge. So it returns to the lender all of the rights it had over you that it had before your bankruptcy.

That of course includes the right to repossess your vehicle if you don’t make payments on time. But likely also included is the right to repossess if you let the insurance lapse. Or the lender may impose its own insurance and charge you an exorbitant amount for it. The lender may even be quicker about force-placing insurance or repossessing after bankruptcy than before.

So do not enter into a reaffirmation agreement lightly. It would certainly be unfortunate for somebody to go through the efforts of a Chapter 7 case, get a fresh financial start, only to have a vehicle repossession and its resulting debt a year or two later.

Other Options?

Are there any other options if you couldn’t afford the vehicle payments even after discharging your other debts?

Also, would you be able to keep your vehicle in a Chapter 7 case if you DIDN’T sign a reaffirmation agreement but just kept current on your payments and insurance?

We’ll cover these practical questions in the next blog post or two.

In the meantime, reaffirmation agreements are covered by the Bankruptcy Code at Section 524(c).

 

The Surprising Benefits: An Example of Vehicle Loan Cramdown

October 1st, 2018 at 7:00 am

Vehicle loan cramdown can greatly reduce your monthly payment and the total amount you pay on your loan. Here’s a helpful example.

 

Cramdown in Chapter 13

Last week we introduced cramdown as an extremely helpful tool for reducing the cost of your vehicle loan. Cramdown can often:

  1. Reduce your monthly payments—sometimes significantly.
  2. Reduce the amount you pay on your vehicle contract altogether—often by thousands of dollars.
  3. Excuse you from catching up on any back payments on your vehicle.

Here’s an example to illustrate just how good cramdown can be.

The Facts in Our Example

Assume you are making payments on a 2015 Ford Fusion SE that you bought new more than three years ago. You bought from a dealer for $27,000. After adding the various fees and taxes, and subtracting your modest down payment, you financed $27,000. Because your credit was iffy your loan was at the high interest rate of 8.9% on a 84-month loan.

The monthly payment of $433 has been tough to keep up on. You’re now a month late and your next payment is due in a week. You know that you’re close to getting your vehicle repossessed.

After 34 monthly payments of $433 you’d normally owe about $18,000 but with a bunch of late fees and other charges you owe around $19,000. Your vehicle is currently worth $13,000, with 55,000 miles (average for a 2015 vehicle).

Under Chapter 7 “Straight Bankruptcy”

If you filed a Chapter 7 case you’d basically have a choice between keeping the car with its present loan terms or surrendering it and writing off the loan.

Assuming that you absolutely need the transportation, you’d have to “reaffirm” the loan. That means that you’d have to catch up on the missed payments and agree to keep it current. You’d be stuck with the current monthly payment amount. You’d be stuck with the high interest rate (costing you more than $9,000 over the length of the contract). If you ever failed to keep current and the vehicle got repossessed, you’d likely owe a large “deficiency balance.” And your vehicle would be gone.

Savings through Cramdown

In contrast, under Chapter 13 cramdown both your monthly payment and the total amount paid would be reduced.

In our example, you and your bankruptcy lawyer reduce the monthly payment as follows. The $19,000 balance on the contract gets divided into the secured and unsecured portions.

The secured portion is based on the current value of the vehicle: $13,000. You have 3 to 5 years to pay that amount. Depending on all the circumstances you should be able to reduce the interest rate—assume down to 4%. $13,000 amortized at 4% over the maximum 60 months works out to only about $239 per month.

What about the Unsecured Part of the Vehicle Loan?

What happens to the remaining unsecured portion in the amount of $6,000? (That’s the $19,000 current loan balance minus the above $13,000 secured portion.) It gets lumped into the pool of your other “general unsecured” debts. So what happens to that $6,000 debt?

It depends. In most situations you effectively pay nothing more during your Chapter 13 case as a result of this $6,000 debt. This would happen for two potential reasons.

0% Chapter 13 Plans

First, after paying allowed living expenses and higher priority debt—including the monthly $239 vehicle payments, and also recent income taxes, home mortgage and support arrearage, and such—you may have nothing left over for the general unsecured debts. Under these circumstances you’d be paying 0% on these debts during your Chapter 13 payment plan. Then at the end of the 3-to-5-year plan those general unsecured debts would be discharged—completely written off. This would include the $6,000 unsecured part of the vehicle loan. You’d pay nothing on it (and still keep your vehicle).

Partial Payment Chapter 13 Plans

Second, you may instead have some money during your plan to pay towards your general unsecured debts. But even then, in most Chapter 13 cases the existence of the unsecured part of your vehicle loan does not increase how much you pay into your plan over the life of the plan.

Let’s add a few more facts to our example. Assume that you have $40,000 in other general unsecured debts (credit cards, medical bills, old income taxes, and such). Add the $6,000 unsecured part of your vehicle loan, for a total of $46,000 of general unsecured debts. Assume also that over the course of your Chapter 13 plan you have disposable income (after allowed expenses and higher priority debts) totaling $4,000. You pay that $4,000 over time through your monthly plan payments.

If you didn’t owe the $6,000 unsecured part of your vehicle loan, that $4,000 would result in you paying 10% of your general unsecured debts ($4,000 out of $40,000 owed). When you include the $6,000 unsecured part, the $4,000 paid would result in you paying about 8.7% of your general unsecured debts ($4,000 out of $46,000 owed). But either way you’re paying what you can afford to pay—$4,000 over the life of your case. The existence of the $6,000 unsecured part of the vehicle loan has no effect on how much you pay. What you pay just gets distributed a little differently. The other general unsecured debts get pay a little less so that the $6,000 debt receives a small part of the $4,000.

Most Plans Do Not Pay More Resulting from the Unsecured Part of the Vehicle Loan

This happens in most cases that are not 0% plans (discussed above). The only way that an unsecured part of a vehicle loan would increase the amount you pay in your plan is if you have disposable income larger than your other general unsecured debts. In the example, you’d have to have more than $40,000 of disposable income during your plan. Only then would the addition of the $6,000 unsecured part of your vehicle loan to the general unsecured pool increase what you’d pay. That situation is rare. Most people don’t have disposable income during their case larger than their non-vehicle general unsecured debts.

Qualifying for Cramdown

Remember that cramdown is only available in Chapter 13 “adjustment of debts.” Not Chapter 7. Also, to qualify the vehicle loan must be at least 910 days old (about 2 and a half years) when filing the Chapter 13 case.  And finally, cramdown is beneficial for most purposes only when the vehicle is worth less than the balance on the loan. The more it’s worth less, the greater the likely benefit of the cramdown.

 

Cramdown on Vehicle Not Bought for Personal Use

January 17th, 2018 at 8:00 am

The 910-day condition for doing a vehicle debt cramdown don’t apply if the vehicle was not “acquired for the personal use of the debtor.”  

The Cramdown Advantage

The last several blog posts have been about the advantages of Chapter 13 cramdown, especially the cramdown of vehicle loans. Cramdown can be an excellent way to keep your vehicle. It usually allows you to reduce the monthly payment as well as the total you pay on the debt. Often the payment reduction is significant. You can often save thousands of dollars compared to what you’d usually pay on the debt overall.  Through cramdown you may be able to keep a car or truck that you couldn’t afford to otherwise.

Because of these advantages vehicle loan cramdown may be a reason to file a Chapter 13 case. It’s not available under Chapter 7 “straight bankruptcy.”

The 910-Day Condition on “Personal Use” Purchases

As we said in a blog post last week, there is usually a timing condition you need to meet to do a vehicle loan cramdown. In most consumer bankruptcy situations you must have entered into the contract more than 910 days (about two and half years) before filing the Chapter 13 case. So if you bought and financed a vehicle more recently you wouldn’t be able to do a cramdown.

But that only applies when “the collateral for that debt consists of a motor vehicle… acquired for the personal use of the debtor.” (See the unnumbered “hanging paragraph” right after Section 1325(a)(9) of the U.S. Bankruptcy Code.)  So if your vehicle was acquired for business use, or some other non-personal use, the 910-day condition does not apply. You could do a cramdown on the loan in a Chapter 13 case filed at any time.

An Example

Imagine that eighteen months ago you bought a truck for a business that’s in your name. You financed the entire $50,000 purchase. The truck is now worth $32,500.

Your business has just failed and you need to file bankruptcy. You need to keep the truck because you sold your other vehicle to try to keep the business going.

On the advice of your bankruptcy lawyer you are filing a Chapter 13 “adjustment of debts” case.  There are other reasons to do so having to do with income tax debts. But you also learn you can do a cramdown on this truck loan and save money. You can do so even though you’re still a year short of the 910 days (about two and half years) since getting the loan.

Again, that’s because that 910-day condition would only apply if the truck was bought for “personal use.” If it was clearly bought for the business, you can do a cramdown without waiting the 910 day from the purchase to the Chapter 13 filing. (Your lawyer will review the loan documents to make sure they don’t indicate the purchase was for personal use.)

As a result your truck loan would effectively be rewritten based on the $32,500 current truck value. You would very likely be able to reduce the monthly payment on the loan. You would also very likely be able to pay thousands of dollars less overall before you owned the truck free and clear. Finally, besides saving you money immediately and long-term, it may enable you to keep the vehicle when you could not afford to do so otherwise.

 

Getting Out of Your Vehicle Loan through Bankruptcy

May 2nd, 2016 at 7:00 am

Keeping a vehicle and its debt is sometimes not the best option. Chapter 7 and Chapter 13 can both give you a safe way out.

 

The last two blog posts have been about ways of dealing with your vehicle loan that enable you to keep the vehicle. Chapter 7 “straight bankruptcy” usually allows you to enter into a “reaffirmation agreement,” making you continue to be liable on your vehicle loan in return for being able to keep the vehicle. Chapter 13 “adjustment of debts” can give you more time to catch up if you’re behind and, if you qualify for “cramdown,” may reduce your monthly payments and reduce the total amount you would pay for your vehicle.

But it’s very important to recognize that bankruptcy also gives you an extraordinary opportunity to get out of your vehicle contract and its debt. Even if at first you really believe that you should keep your vehicle, it’s often worth reconsidering this.

Your Opportunity to Escape the Debt on the Vehicle Loan or Lease

Sometimes a bad vehicle purchase or lease is one of the main things dragging you down financially. The Chapter 7 or Chapter 13 options give you a unique opportunity to undo the deal.

You may regret having made the purchase or lease. Maybe you were talked into it by a pushy salesperson. You may have been surprised when you qualified for the credit and figured that if they thought you could afford it, you should grab the opportunity. You may have had second thoughts about being able to afford the car or truck from the beginning. Bankruptcy is your chance to get out from under the pressure of the payments.

Or maybe instead the purchase really did make sense at the time but doesn’t so much anymore. The vehicle may have turned out to be untrustworthy and not a good value. Your financial situation may have changed so you can no longer afford its monthly payments and other costs. Because of the vehicle’s fast depreciation, you may also owe way more than it’s worth. You wish you could just get out of the obligation.

The “Deficiency Balance”

You may not realize how difficult it is to just get out of a car or truck purchase or lease. You probably know that you can’t just take the vehicle back, give them the key, and call it good. You know it’ll cost you something. What you may not know is how much it’ll cost you.

Usually when you surrender your vehicle to the creditor you are left owing money—the “deficiency balance”—the difference between what you owe on the contract and what your creditor would get for your vehicle as a credit on your account. Returned and repossessed vehicles are usually sold at auto auctions, where the purchasers are mostly used car dealers. They need to make a profit when re-selling the vehicle so they aren’t willing or able to pay much for it. Plus the potential buyers don’t have much opportunity or desire to check out the condition of the vehicle. Since it’s surrendered or repossessed, you can understand that they assume it hasn’t been particularly well cared for. So the amount your vehicle is sold for and the amount credited to your account is often pathetically small.

On the other side of the ledger, the amount you owe is often much more than you expected. Your contract almost always allows the lender or lessor to tack onto your account ALL kinds of s additional costs. All of its costs of surrender or repossession, and of the re-sale process are piled on, item after item, each one adding to the amount you owe.

In the end the amount you still owe after giving back your vehicle–the “deficiency balance”—is often shockingly high.

You Will Be Sued

Most of the time your lender/lessor will waste little time going to court to make you pay off that deficiency balance. It no longer has any collateral backing up the debt. It knows that paying this debt is not likely your highest priority. Sometimes the law gives it a relatively short time to sue or lose out on the chance to make you liable on the remaining debt. You will be forced to deal with the debt one way or the other.

Chapter 7

Almost always, Chapter 7 “straight bankruptcy” gives you the ability to “discharge”—permanently get rid of that debt—without paying anything.

The vast majority of the time you don’t lose any of your assets to your creditors when you file a Chapter 7 case. That’s because everything you own is “exempt”—protected from the bankruptcy trustee and your creditors. So you keep what you own and nothing goes to your creditors, including to your vehicle loan lender or lessor.

The deficiency balance is discharged virtually always. The very rare exceptions are if you somehow purposely cheated this creditor by intentionally lying on the credit application, or through some other kind of direct misrepresentation. Even then the creditor would have to formally accuse you of this within about 3 months after your Chapter 7 case was filed or else the debt would be forever discharged anyway.

Bottom line: a Chapter 7 case would almost always get rid of whatever you owe on your surrendered car or truck. Filing the case would stop any collection efforts or lawsuit, and within 3 or 4 months the debt would be gone.  

Chapter 13

The Chapter 13 “adjustment of debts” isn’t as quick but in the end should have the same result of giving you the opportunity to give your vehicle back and discharge the remaining debt.

Because Chapter 13 takes much longer—usually 3 to 5 years—you would be filing one for benefits not related to your vehicle. But it’s good to know what does happen to your deficiency balance under this option.

Filing a Chapter 13 case would stop any collection efforts and lawsuit the same as a Chapter 7 filing. Then the debt would be lumped in with the rest of your “general unsecured” debts—those at the “bottom of the barrel” that are generally paid only as much as you can afford to pay after paying your other more important debts.

What’s important to realize is that in most cases the deficiency balance does NOT add to what you would pay under your Chapter 13 payment plan. You may think Chapter 13 doesn’t make sense as far as what you continue owing on your vehicle because you’re paying something on that debt instead of paying nothing in a Chapter 7 case.

True, your remaining vehicle debt itself is better handled most of the time under Chapter 7. But if you have other reasons to be doing a Chapter 13 case, don’t sweat about the deficiency balance getting paid something instead of nothing. That’s because usually you end up having to pay a certain amount to ALL of your “general unsecured” creditors, and having the deficiency balance debt usually does not increase that amount. What your former vehicle lender/lessor receives just subtracts from what the other “general unsecured” creditors receive, leaving you paying the same—whatever you can afford to pay over the life of your Chapter 13 payment plan.

Then at the end of your successful Chapter 13 case, regardless how much your deficiency balance was paid or not, the remaining amount is forever discharged.

 

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