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The Surprising Benefits: Reinstating Your Driver’s License Suspended for Unpaid Tickets

May 24th, 2018 at 7:00 am

You may be able to reinstate your license in spite of one or more unpaid traffic tickets. It mostly depends on the traffic laws violated. 

 

We’re deep into a series of blog posts about powerful, less familiar benefits of bankruptcy. One important one is getting your suspended driver’s license reinstated. Whether you can get your license reinstated through bankruptcy depends a lot on the reason for the suspension. Last week we covered suspensions for not paying a judgment from a motor vehicle accident while driving uninsured or underinsured. Today we cover suspensions for not paying one or more traffic tickets.

License Reinstatement Depends on Discharge of the Traffic Ticket(s)

Our last blog post showed how bankruptcy reinstates a license suspended because of an unpaid debt from an accident. These suspensions usually come from not paying a court judgment or debt from an uninsured motor vehicle accident. Usually such a debt can be legally written off (“discharged”) through bankruptcy. After bankruptcy takes away the reason for the suspension, the driver’s license can be reinstated.

It works about the same way with traffic tickets. If your license was suspended for not paying traffic tickets, a bankruptcy can sometimes discharge what you owe on those tickets. That could enable you to reinstate your license.

Not Available Under Chapter 7

Chapter 7 (“straight bankruptcy”) doesn’t work with traffic ticket suspensions. Chapter 7 doesn’t discharge “a fine, penalty, or forfeiture payable to and for the benefit of a governmental unit.” See Section 523(a)(7) of the U.S. Bankruptcy Code.  A debt owed for a traffic ticket is a “fine” or “penalty” that you owe to the state, city or other local “governmental unit” whose police issued it to you. Because Chapter 7 doesn’t discharge traffic tickets, it cannot reinstate a driver’s license suspended for nonpayment of those tickets.

Need to File Under Chapter 13

However, Chapter 13 is different. It may be able to discharge the debt from your tickets. That’s because Chapter 13 does NOT exclude “a fine, penalty, or forfeiture payable to and for the benefit of a governmental unit” from discharge. See Section 1328(a)(2) of the Bankruptcy Code. That Subsection lists the kinds of debts that Chapter 13 does not discharge. It refers to some but not all of the kinds of debts that Chapter 7 cannot discharge. The kinds of debts listed do NOT include the “fine” and “penalty” one referred to above—Section 523(a)(7). This means that Chapter 13 CAN discharge such “fines” and “penalties,” including certain traffic ticket debts. Since Chapter 13 can discharge traffic tickets, it may enable you to reinstate your license suspended for that reason.

Traffic Crimes vs. Violations or Infractions

Whether Chapter 13 can discharge the ticket debt depends on the nature of the law(s) you violated. Neither Chapter 7 nor Chapter 13 can discharge criminal fines or restitution. So the traffic ticket(s) must not be for a crime, but rather for a traffic violation or infraction. It can’t be for a misdemeanor or felony.

Chapter 13 specifically excludes from discharge “any debt… for restitution, or a criminal fine, included in a sentence on the debtor’s conviction of a crime.” See Section 1328(a)(3). So did your license suspension came from breaking a traffic law requiring you to pay restitution or a criminal fine? If so that restitution or fine could not be discharged in bankruptcy, thereby not enabling your license to be reinstated. But if your ticket(s) are from traffic violation(s) or infraction(s), those could be discharged and your license reinstated.

This Can Be Unclear and Feel Arbitrary

What’s the difference between a dischargeable non-criminal traffic violation or infraction and a nondischargeable criminal fine?  This is often not clear.  None of these words are defined in the Bankruptcy Code. Whether breaking a traffic law is considered non-criminal or criminal can be quite arbitrary. It can turn on the coincidence of the words used in your state’s statutes or your local jurisdiction’s ordinances.

Generally, the more serious a violation of the traffic laws, the more likely that violation would be considered criminal. On one extreme, parking tickets are most likely not criminal. On the other extreme are serious violations that would likely be considered criminal, such as reckless driving, hit and run, and evading arrest. Your bankruptcy lawyer has experience with your local and state jurisdictions’ laws to advise you in making this crucial distinction.

License Reinstatement Procedure

Assume that Chapter 13 would discharge your particular traffic ticket debts. Under Chapter 13 the discharge of your debts does not happen until the end of the 3-to-5 year case. You may or may not have to wait that long to reinstate your license. It depends on local procedures.

Those procedures involve a number of authorities—the state or local court imposing the traffic fine, the state motor vehicles department reinstating your license, and the bankruptcy court discharging the traffic fine debt.

Conclusion

So, no question, this is complicated. Your bankruptcy lawyer will help in two huge ways. First, he or she will advise you whether you will be able to reinstate your license. If so, second, your lawyer will be aware of policies and practices of each of the authorities (or can research this), and guide your case through them efficiently. Then your license will be reinstated as quickly as possible.

 

The Surprising Benefits: Reinstating a Driver’s License

May 14th, 2018 at 7:00 am

Bankruptcy does more than stop creditors in their tracks and then write off their debts. It can get a suspended driver’s license reinstated.  

 

We’re continuing in this series of blog posts about the powerful but less obvious benefits of bankruptcy. Bankruptcy gives you immediate and long-term relief from your debts. But it can do other very important things you may not know about. Today we get into how bankruptcy can get a suspended driver’s license reinstated.

Reasons for Driver’s License Suspension

Whether your filing of a bankruptcy case can reinstate your suspended driver’s license depends on the reason for the suspension. Two of the most common kinds are suspensions are from:

1) not paying a judgment from a motor vehicle accident while driving uninsured; and

2) failing to pay traffic tickets.

This blog post focuses reinstating your license from the first one of these kinds of suspension. We’ll get to the second one next.

Judgment from a Vehicle Accident While Driving Uninsured

Let’s make clear how your license can get suspended in this situation. A person gets into a car accident while driving uninsured. The accident results in some property damage and/or personal injury for the other driver(s) or for passengers. The other driver or somebody else involved sues the person (usually through their insurance company). The person sued then gets a judgment against him or her from that lawsuit. That judgment legally establishes that the uninsured driver owes damages arising out of the accident. The judgment determines that the driver was at least partially at fault and must pay those damages.

If such a judgment was taken against you, your state’s laws likely gave you a very limited amount of time to pay that judgment. So what happens if you don’t pay it off within that time?

You guessed it:  your driver’s license gets suspended. The idea is that you failed to fulfill your financial responsibilities as a driver. You legally owe a debt from an accident that you were at least partially at fault for. And it’s a debt that you didn’t pay, probably because you didn’t have insurance.

Bankruptcy Wipes Out the Debt, No More Reason for the Suspension

The good news is that by filing bankruptcy you can discharge (legally write off) that debt. As soon as you no longer owe that debt, the reason that your license got suspended is gone. So the license can be reinstated.

State vs. Federal Laws

But wait a minute. Doesn’t your state have the right to make laws about this and have them be respected by federal bankruptcy laws?

Yes, the state has a legitimate interest in keeping its roads safe. It can help do that by requiring drivers to have liability insurance. That way, vehicle accident victims are more likely to be compensated for their property damages and personal injuries. So states can use license suspensions as part of its incentive for drivers to have insurance.

But what if a state’s law specifically says that it can suspend a person’s driver’s license even if the person has discharged that debt in bankruptcy? Doesn’t that conflict with federal bankruptcy law’s granting of a full discharge of that debt? Discharging a debt is of limited benefit if you still can’t get your license back for not paying the debt.

The Supreme Court Has Resolved this in Favor of Debtors

This particular conflict between state and federal law is one that the U.S. Supreme Court addressed and resolved decades ago.  In Perez v. Campbell the Court laid out the issue in one long sentence:  

What is at issue here is the power of a State to include as part of this comprehensive enactment designed to secure compensation for automobile accident victims a section providing that a discharge in bankruptcy of the automobile accident tort judgment shall have no effect on the judgment debtor’s obligation to repay the judgment creditor, at least insofar as such repayment may be enforced by the withholding of driving privileges by the State.

402 U.S. 637, 643 (1971). In other words, can a state require a person to pay a debt from a vehicle accident in order to reinstate the person’s driver’s license, even after that debt was discharged in bankruptcy?

The Court decided this in favor of the debtors. A state cannot require payment of a bankruptcy discharged debt to reinstate a license. The state statute was in conflict with one of the main purposes of bankruptcy: to give debtors “a new opportunity in life and a clear field for future effort, unhampered by the pressure and discouragement of pre-existing debt” [quoting an earlier Supreme Court opinion]. The Court concluded: “There can be no doubt… that Congress intended this ‘new opportunity’ to include freedom from most kinds of pre-existing tort judgments.” (402 U.S. 637, 648.) “We think it clear that [the state statute] is constitutionally invalid.” (At 656.)

Conclusion

If your driver’s license was, or is about to be, suspended because of an unpaid debt arising from an uninsured motor vehicle accident, see a bankruptcy lawyer. There’s a good chance you can reinstate your license—or prevent it from being suspended—through bankruptcy.  

 

Choosing Between Bankruptcy and Foreclosure

May 10th, 2018 at 9:04 am

foreclosureThe decision between filing for bankruptcy or foreclosing on your home is stressful. Neither is optimal when it comes to the immediate financial impact to your credit score, however, neither are late payments. Bankruptcy stays on your credit report for 10 years, while foreclosure typically rolls off in seven years. But, before you give in to losing your home, there are a few details worth considering.

Saving the Home

First, you must decide if you want to save the home. If you are behind by a month or two, contact your lender. The foreclosure process is expensive for banks. In many cases, your lender will work with you. Options to consider include:

  • Make up the late payments;
  • Restructure the loan; or
  • Request a forbearance.

The Foreclosure Option

First, consider that foreclosure is very serious to future mortgage lenders, more than a bankruptcy that did not include the house. Additionally, foreclosure will drop your credit score by 200 or 300 points. Discuss the option of a short sale instead of foreclosure with your lender. With this option, the house is worth less than the principal balance of the loan, in which case, you may owe the remaining balance. In many situations, banks waive this difference. If a short sale is not an option, some banks accept “deed in lieu of foreclosure,” where you turn the house over to the lender and owe nothing. Explore these opportunities with your lender

How Bankruptcy Can Help

There are many options when filing for bankruptcy, each with unique benefits to suit your needs. Because you own a home and have income, Chapter 13 will probably be your best option. Rather than liquidating everything, Chapter 13 allows you to restructure your debt. As soon as you file, an automatic stay is placed on all accounts, effectively stopping all debt collection attempts. The stay also halts foreclosure proceedings, which may help you catch up on payments. Next, all of the creditor and lenders then convene with an appointed trustee to create a payment plan to repay the debt. This option allows you to keep your assets, including your home, and eventually get caught up on your mortgage.

Ask an Attorney

Mortgage lenders and collection agencies send correspondence that is intimidating and overwhelming. The calls and other communication can stop now. You can begin looking forward to a brighter financial future today. Discover if bankruptcy is the right solution for you by calling a New Braunfels, TX bankruptcy attorney. The Law Offices of Chance M. McGhee will take the time to carefully examine the details of your case and give you honest feedback on which bankruptcy option is best for you. Call 210-342-3400 today to schedule your free, no-obligation consult.

 

Sources:

http://www.nbcnews.com/id/21478416/ns/business-answer_desk/t/which-worse-foreclosure-or-bankruptcy/#.WuvfQDGG_IU

http://www.txs.uscourts.gov/node

The Surprising Benefits: Removing a Judgment Lien on Your Home

May 7th, 2018 at 7:00 am

Bankruptcy usually does not get rid of liens against your assets. However, in many situations you can “avoid” a judgment lien on your home. 


We’re on a series of blog posts about the powerful but less obvious benefits of bankruptcy. Bankruptcy can do much more than just give you immediate and long-term relief from your debts. Today we get into the extremely helpful way bankruptcy can take judgment liens off the title to your home.

The Problem Begging for a Solution

When a creditor sues you, most often it gets a judgment against you. If you do not respond to the lawsuit, the creditor gets a default judgment. That’s a court determination that you owe the debt. The judgment also usually includes substantial fees related to the lawsuit that you then also legally owe.

Even if you do respond, formally or informally, to the lawsuit and work out some kind of deal with the creditor, that deal often includes the creditor getting a judgment against you.

Either way, the creditor’s judgment against you usually results in a judgment lien against your home. That’s often true whether you owned a home at that time or not. For example, if you bought a home years later, a previously entered judgment lien could attach to it. Or if you are buying a home on a contract with the seller, including a rent-to-own, the judgment could attach to your right to the home. Sometimes a new or old judgment lien could even attach to your rights under a residential lease.

Any such judgment lien is separate from the debt you owe to that creditor. Bankruptcy can usually write off (“discharge”) debts but not liens. For example, if you are making payments on a vehicle, bankruptcy can discharge the debt but does not affect the lien that the creditor has on the vehicle. So unless you surrender the vehicle, you have to pay for the right to keep the vehicle. Similarly, bankruptcy may write off the debt that resulted in the judgment, but that could still leave the judgment lien on your home. This is a significant problem because you would likely have to pay to get rid of the lien when you sell or refinance the home.

Judgment Lien “Avoidance”

However, bankruptcy law does have a solution that works in many situations. As long as you meet certain conditions, you can “avoid”—undo—a judgment lien as part of your bankruptcy case. You may well be able to meet these conditions.

The Conditions for Judgment Liens “Avoidance”

You can take a judgment lien off your home by meeting the following conditions:

  • The judgment lien at issue is attached is your “homestead.” That’s the real estate or other property right that the homestead exemption protects for you under the law.
  • That lien must be a “judicial lien.” That’s defined in the U.S. Bankruptcy Code as “a lien obtained by judgment, levy, sequestration, or other legal or equitable process or proceeding.”
  • This “judicial lien” cannot be for child or spousal support or for a mortgage foreclosure.
  • The judgment lien must “impair” the homestead exemption. This usually means that the lien cuts into the equity protected by the applicable homestead exemption.  

See Section 522(f)(1)(A) of the  Bankruptcy Code.

Example

Assume the following:

  • You were previously sued by a collection agency on a medical debt for $15,000. You didn’t respond because you knew you owed the debt. So the collection agency got a judgment of $15,000 plus another $2,500 for costs and fees, totaling $17,500. Then a judgment lien in that amount was recorded against your home.
  • You file a Chapter 7 “straight bankruptcy” case. It will discharge—forever write off-the $17,500 debt. But without lien avoidance the judgment lien would survive.
  • You owe a $200,000 mortgage on your home, which is worth $210,000. So you have equity of $10,000. The judgment lien attaches to that $10,000 of equity.
  • In your state you have a $25,000 homestead exemption—protecting the first $25,000 of equity in your home. Since you have less equity than that, the full $10,000 of your equity is protected by your homestead exemption.

The judgment lien “impairs” (or absorbs) the full $10,000 of equity in your home. This equity is all protected by the applicable homestead exemption. Therefore, the judgment lien impairs the homestead exemption.

Because all of the conditions are met in this example, your bankruptcy lawyer could successfully file a motion to “avoid” the judgment lien. You’d permanently be rid of both the $17,500 debt and the judgment lien on your home.

The Surprising Benefits: Resolving the “Preference” Problem through Chapter 13

April 30th, 2018 at 7:00 am

Avoid the risks or persuading or negotiating with the Chapter 7 trustee by solving your preference problem through Chapter 13. 

 

Our last several blog posts have been about the problem of preference payments:

  • 3 weeks ago we introduced the problem resulting from paying a favored creditor before you file bankruptcy
  • 2 weeks ago we discussed avoiding the problem by delaying filing your case or persuading the trustee to do nothing
  • Last week was about negotiating with the trustee to pay off the preference money yourself

Today we get into how to solve this problem by filing a Chapter 13 “adjustment of debts” case instead of a Chapter 7 “straight bankruptcy” one.

When Filing a Chapter 13 Case May Be Worthwhile

A Chapter 13 case is very, very different from a Chapter 7 one. For starters, instead of taking about 4 months a Chapter 13 case almost always takes 3 to 5 YEARS.  Using it to resolve a preference is almost never a good enough reason to file a Chapter 13 case.

But Chapter 13 CAN be better than Chapter 7 in many situations. It can accomplish a lot that Chapter 7 can’t. So if you already have a good reason or two to consider a Chapter 13 case, using it to solve a preference problem as well may push you in that direction.

Let’s say you have an expensive vehicle loan that you’re a month behind on. Chapter 13 would allow you to cramdown that loan. That would reduce your monthly payments and the total you would pay. Plus you wouldn’t have to catch up on the missed payment. Yet you’re on the fence as you wonder if the disadvantages of Chapter 13 outweigh these savings. So if you have a preference problem that Chapter 13 would deal with, that could push you into deciding on Chapter 13.

When You Really Need to Use Chapter 13

The Chapter 7 solutions don’t always work:

  • You often don’t have the luxury of delaying your bankruptcy filing enough so that more than 90 days has passed after the preferential payment. (Or a full year has passed, if the payment was to an “insider” creditor)
  • The trustee may pursue your previously paid creditor in spite of your bankruptcy lawyer’s efforts to dissuade the trustee.
  • You may not have the ability to pay off the trustee yourself. Or you may owe too much to pay it off fast enough to satisfy the trustee.

So you’re looking to file bankruptcy and your lawyer advises you that none of these three are going to work. Then, if you want to avoid having a Chapter 7 trustee chasing your prior-paid creditor, consider the Chapter 13 solution.

How Does Chapter 13 Fix a Preference Problem?

Chapter 13 solves the preference problem by enabling you to pay the trustee within your payment plan. You pay enough extra money into your Chapter 13 plan to pay what you would have paid a Chapter 7 trustee. But you have significant advantages in doing it this way.

But first an example to show how this works. Assume you paid off a debt of $2,500 to your sister 60 days before filing bankruptcy. You’d gotten a tax refund and she desperately needed the money. You’d put her off for years and then had promised to pay her from the refund. Now you’re about to have your home foreclosed on so you can’t wait to file bankruptcy. If you filed a Chapter 7 case the bankruptcy trustee would force your sister to return the $2,500. She’d get sued if she didn’t. You absolutely don’t want that to happen. So you file a Chapter 13 case—which you be doing anyway to save your home. Your lawyer calculates your Chapter 13 payment plan to pay an extra $2,500 beyond what you would otherwise need to pay. You pay that extra amount over the course of your 3-to-5-year case. This may increase your monthly payment somewhat, or it may extend the length of your case. But your sister would not have to pay back anything. The trustee would have no need to even contact her.

Advantages of Using Chapter 13

1. When you file a Chapter 7 case hoping to persuade the trustee not to pursue your prior payee, you may not know if that’ll work. Or if you hope to negotiate payments to the trustee, you don’t know if that will work. The trustee may want to try to get the money out of your payee after all. Or your trustee may reject your offer in order to get the money faster from your payee. Using Chapter 13 takes away these risks. The system allows you to use your Chapter 13 plan to pay what’s needed.

2. Chapter 13 gives you much more time to pay what you need to pay. A Chapter 7 trustee’s job is liquidation. He or she is under pressure to wrap up your case quickly, and so will pressure you to pay quickly. Ask your lawyer but generally a Chapter 7 trustee won’t give you more than a year to pay up. And he or she may simply require you to pay it all in a lump sum. In contrast, under Chapter 13 you have 3 to 5 years to pay.

3. You have more control over where the money goes, and when. Chapter 13 is often used to pay creditors that you want to or need to pay. For example, if you owe a recent income tax debt or back child support, it’s much better to have those debts paid through a court-ordered Chapter 13 payment plan.

4. You have more control over when debts are paid. If you have a debt or two that needs to be paid quickly, that can often be paid first. For example, if you need to catch up on a car payment (because it doesn’t qualify for cramdown), your plan may front-load money there. The extra money you are paying because of the preference can be put to better use early in your case.

 

Reversing Real Estate Judgment Liens with Bankruptcy

April 26th, 2018 at 11:40 pm

Texas bankruptcy attorneyCreditors know how to work the system to get the money owed to them. In some cases, creditors have the courts put a lien on debtor’s possessions without the owner’s consent or knowledge, granting the creditor a legal claim over the property. By placing a lien on real estate, a vehicle, or personal property, a creditor secures payment of the money owed, sooner or later.

Buyers will not purchase items without a clear title, and a lien makes any title unclear. Although a creditor has the option to sell the property, such as in foreclosure, most wait until the debtor chooses to sell the property. At that point, seller pays the debt out-of-pocket or uses part of the purchase price to repay the debt. Fortunately, in Chapter 7 bankruptcy, you may be able to avoid the whole ordeal by getting rid of the judgment lien altogether.

Consensual Versus Non-Consensual Liens

Liens are placed on property both with and without consent. If consent is given, it happens at the origination of the creditor-debtor relationship. For example, either the debtor is asking for money to purchase property, such as a home or a vehicle, where the bank would then own the property, and the purchaser makes payments to the financial institution; or the debtor is asking for a financial loan and offers property they already own as collateral.

Alternatively, if someone wins a judgment against another party in court and money is owed, a judge may grant a judgment lien, which frequently happens with unpaid debt. This is an example of a non-consensual lien.

Lien Avoidance

Through judgment lien avoidance, you can permanently remove a judgment lien. If this occurs during bankruptcy, you will own the property, free-and-clear with no other payments. Lien avoidance is recommended, if possible, even if you do not intend to keep the property long-term, as you can then sell the property to pay for other things. To qualify, the following must be true:

  • The lien is a court-issued money judgment;
  • There is exempt equity in part of the property; and
  • Property loss impairs the exemption.

Reduce Courtroom Surprises

Many filers do not realize they have any liens on their property. Others discover partial claims. Sometimes, debtors do not have equity during the bankruptcy filing, but that changes down the road. In all of these circumstances, a New Braunfels, TX bankruptcy attorney can help. If there is a lien on your property and you have little, no, or even negative equity, the Law Offices of Chance M. McGhee will explore all of your options. Call us today for your free, no-obligation consultation at 210-342-3400.

 

Sources:

https://study.com/academy/lesson/types-of-liens-equitable-possessable-statutory.html

http://www.landlordstation.com/blog/what-is-a-judgment-lien/

The Surprising Benefits: Resolving the “Preference” Problem through Negotiation

April 23rd, 2018 at 7:00 am

Prevent your Chapter 7 trustee from requiring a relative or friend to return your pre-bankruptcy payment by paying the trustee yourself.  

 

Our blog post two weeks ago introduced an uncomfortable problem: preference payments to a friendly creditor. (Please read that blog post before reading this one.) Then last week we discussed two possible solutions to this problem. Today we discuss the first of two other solutions.

The First Two Solutions

One way to avoid this problem is simply to wait long enough so that enough time passes from the time of your payment to your favored creditor to the time you file your Chapter 7 bankruptcy case. That’s because a payment is considered preferential only if you paid it within a specific time period before your bankruptcy filing. That time period is only 90 days, or one year if the payment was to an “insider.” If you file your case after the pertinent time period has passed, the payment is no longer a preference. You’ve avoided the problem altogether.

The second way to solve the problem is for your bankruptcy lawyer to convince your Chapter 7 trustee not to pursue the preferential payment. That is, there are circumstances when it’s not cost-effective for the trustee to make your payee pay it back. Either the amount at issue is too small or the person you paid can’t be forced to disgorge the money.  

But what if neither of these would work? You couldn’t wait long enough to file your bankruptcy case. Or the trustee definitely intends to pursue your payee for the preferential payment. What other options do you have? Here’s a likely solution.

Offer to Pay the Trustee a Reduced Amount Yourself

A Chapter 7 trustee is required by law to gather whatever the law allows him or her to collect in your case. However, in most consumer Chapter 7 cases the trustee collects nothing—your case is called a “no asset” case. That doesn’t mean you have no assets. It means that all your assets are protected (“exempt”), AND the trustee has no right to anything else. On that second point, most of the time there are no preferential payments for the trustee to pursue.

But we’re assuming here that there IS a preferential payment that the trustee has decided to pursue. Let’s say you very much do not want the trustee to do that. You don’t want the trustee to require the person you paid earlier to now pay that money back to the trustee.

So as we said in the subtitle, you could instead offer to pay the trustee that same amount of money yourself.

Why Would You Want to Pay the Trustee Yourself?

Why in the world would you want to do that? You would if it was the best option for you.

Assume that you have very strong feelings against your prior payee being required to pay back the money you’d paid. Maybe you don’t want that person to even know about your bankruptcy filing. You certainly don’t want the bankruptcy trustee to tell him or her now to give the money you paid back to the trustee. You want to do anything to protect that person.

There’s also a good change that if the trustee did make the person pay the money, you’d have to pay the person again. You may well feel a moral obligation to make the person whole, after the trustee makes him or her to give up what you’d previously paid. If so, then you instead just paying the trustee would cost you the same while avoiding the trustee harassing your prior payee.  

Also, there’s a good chance paying the trustee yourself could save you money. There are costs and risks for the trustee in pursuing a preferential payment. If you pay the trustee yourself that would avoid those costs and risks. So the trustee may well be willing to accept less money—the amount it would have received from your payee minus the avoided costs.

Why Would the Trustee Take Your Money Instead of Your Payee’s?

The trustee doesn’t usually care where he or she gets the money from a preferential payment. Whether it comes from your payee paying the money back, or from you, money is money. The trustee can fulfill his or her responsibilities regardless where the money comes from. So, trustees generally are fine with you paying to avoid the trustee shaking down your payee.

However, that’s not always true. For example, most debtors don’t have the amount of money required payable in a lump sum. Often trustees are willing to let you pay the agreed amount in monthly payments. But the full amount has to be paid off relatively quickly. If the trustee has reason to think that money would come quicker from your payee, the trustee may just decide to get it from him or her instead.

Talk with your bankruptcy lawyer to find out the possibilities under your circumstances.

When Is Paying the Trustee Not a Good Idea?

The whole point of this effort is to protect the person you paid earlier. But there are various situations in which this goal does not apply.

You may not want or need to protect this person. You may not care that the trustee makes him or her pay back the money, for emotional or financial reasons. Frankly, you may have had a falling out with the person. Or, he or she may have plenty of money so that paying back the money may not hurt at all.

You may also not need to protect the person because the law protects him or her already.  He or she may have a valid legal defense to a trustee preference action. Bankruptcy preference law is quite complicated. Your bankruptcy lawyer will ask the appropriate questions to determine whether the person you paid may have a defense.

Your lawyer will also discuss whether the person may not need to pay the trustee for other practical reasons. For example, the amount at issue may simply be too small, or the person may be effectively “judgment-proof.” If so, you’d be wasting your money by paying the trustee yourself.

 

The Surprising Benefits: Solving an Uncomfortable “Preference” Problem

April 16th, 2018 at 7:00 am

A preferential payment to a relative or friend can turn very uncomfortable. But there are some good solutions. One should work for you.

 

Last week’s blog post introduced an uncomfortable problem: preference payments to a friendly creditor. (If you haven’t already please read that one before reading further here.)

The Solutions

We ended that blog post by listing and giving short descriptions of 4 likely practical solutions. We explain the first two of them today and the other two next week.

1. Wait to File Until after the 1-Year or 90-Day Preference Look-Back Period:

There’s one very simple way to avoid having money you paid to a favored creditor turn into a problematic preference.  Wait to file your bankruptcy case long enough so that enough time passes since that payment. Then it’s no longer a preferential payment that the trustee can cause you problems with.

The preference period is only 90 days with most creditors, but a full year with “insider” creditors. Without getting unnecessarily technical, there’s a good chance that anybody you’d have a personal reason for paying is an insider. See Section 101(31) of the U.S. Bankruptcy Code for the statutory definition of insider. But note that this is not a complete list. It says what the term “includes,” but courts have made clear that others not on the list could be insiders. For example, also included could be friends or others who’d you’d have a personal reason to favor over other creditors.

Whether the creditor is an insider or not, the payment you made is not a preference if more than 90 day/1 year has passed when your bankruptcy lawyer files your case. Then your bankruptcy trustee would have no power to require your payee to pay back your payment.

We are well aware that waiting is not a simple solution if you are in a big hurry to file your bankruptcy case.  Waiting even a few days may not be at all easy if your paychecks are being garnished or you’re under other similar collection pressure. Or waiting may even be totally inappropriate if your home would be foreclosed or your vehicle repossessed in the meantime.  

However, there are many situations where you would not be a huge hurry to file your case. Then waiting would be worthwhile. This may especially make sense if you are getting close to 90 day or 1-year mark since your preferential payment. So, at least look into whether you should just wait long enough to avoid the problem altogether.

2. Persuade Trustee Not to Pursue the Preferential Payment:

Just because there was a preferential payment within the look-back period, doesn’t mean it’s worth for the trustee to pursue. There are many circumstances in which you could help convince him or her to let it alone.

First, the simplest situation is if so little money is at issue that it’s not worth the bother. It takes some effort for a trustee to force a preferential payee to pay back the money. There is also a certain amount of paperwork and effort to divvy up the money among your creditors.  If the payment you made is no more than several hundred dollars most likely your trustee will shrug it off. (This is similar to trustees generally not chasing an unprotected (“nonexempt”) asset: if it’s only worth a few hundred dollars it’s usually not worth collecting and distributing.) Talk with your bankruptcy lawyer about what that unstated threshold dollar amount would  be in your area.

Caution: IF the trustee is already collecting assets in any form in your case, this threshold amount consideration likely goes out the window. If the trustee already has to liquidate anything and distribute money to creditors, he or she will usually be inclined to add to that amount by chasing down your preferential payee.

Second, there are many circumstances where forcing a preferential payee to repay the money would be difficult for the trustee. Your payee may have very little in assets or income reachable by the trustee, so it would likely take a very long time to collect it. Or the payee may have a valid defense. Especially if the amount at issue is relatively small (although above the above threshold), the trustee may decide such preferential payments are not worth chasing.

Third, there are other circumstances where the trustee simply could not collect from your payee at all. Your payee may have disappeared and can’t be located. Or your payee may be legally “judgment-proof”—have no assets or income reachable by the trustee. Helping the trustee learn the true facts along these lines could induce him or her make a sensible decision to abandon the preferential payment.

 

Reclaiming Your Texas Driver’s License through Bankruptcy

April 12th, 2018 at 11:34 pm

Texas bankruptcy attorneyCreditors can take the issue of unresolved debt to court and have a judge issue a judgment against the debtor. In most states, judgments do not severely impact the life of a debtor thanks to existing exemptions that protect against losing homes and other possessions. However, in Texas, an unpaid judgement authorizes loss of driving privileges by suspending a driver’s license. The suspension goes on often indefinitely until there is a proof of repayment, or until the issuance of an automatic stay. Such a blow to one’s independence can wreak havoc on any life. Fortunately, reclaiming your license is one of the many surprising benefits of filing for bankruptcy.

How The Loss of Driving Privileges Turns Into A Catastrophe

Although for some the loss of legal driving privileges is a slight inconvenience, the set back is devastating for many others. Having driving abilities is not just about getting to work on time, it is also family availability and other daily life requirements. Furthermore, many employers require a valid driver’s license to maintain employment, such as in positions requiring travel. The next steps are up to the employer. Sometimes, an employer can choose to relocate an employee to an area that does not necessitate a license (or the handling of money, since financial instability creates a liability for many business operations). If termination of employment is the ultimate decision, the loss of income may affect the following payments:

  • Mortgage or rent;
  • Insurance;
  • Groceries; and
  • Electricity.

Get Your Driver’s License Back

If financial difficulty resulted in the loss of your driver’s license, losing your job only compounds the issue further. Fortunately, bankruptcy can enable you to get your license back. Filing for bankruptcy puts an automatic stay in place, which prevents creditors from pursuing all attempts to collect on debt, enabling the filer to reinstate the license without having to satisfy the obligation. Doing so in a timely manner can prevent job loss and the potential accompanying snowball effect the loss of income can have on bills.

Ask an Attorney

If you lost your license as a result of the inability to pay a bill, the last thing you likely want to happen is to experience a job loss on top of it all. Explore the option of bankruptcy with a San Antonio bankruptcy attorney today. At the Law Offices of Chance M. McGhee, we understand how frightening and embarrassing the thought of bankruptcy is, but we also know that waiting can make matters worse. Discover your options today by calling 210-342-3400 for your free and confidential consultation.

 

Sources:

http://www.govcollect.org/files/Texas_Debt_Collection.pdf

https://www.hrbartender.com/2012/recruiting/ask-hr-bartender-losing-your-drivers-license-can-impact-your-career/

 

The Surprising Benefits: A “Preference” Payment to a Relative or Friend

April 9th, 2018 at 7:00 am

A preferential payment to a favored creditor—a relative or friend—can be a problem, but one which usually has a workable solution. 

 

Our last two blog posts have been about one of the more confusing parts of bankruptcy: the law of preferences. This law says that if a creditor takes or receives money from you within the 90 days before you file your bankruptcy case, the creditor may need to pay it back. A creditor would not pay that money to you but rather to your Chapter 7 bankruptcy trustee. The trustee would then pay out that money to creditors based on a priorities schedule in bankruptcy law.

Our last blog post was about how that priority schedule could result in most of that money going to a creditor you need and want to be paid. One example we used was a recent income tax debt. That can’t be discharged (written off) in bankruptcy. So preference law could result in the trustee getting some money back from a creditor you don’t care about to pay the tax debt so you don’t have to.

Preference Payments You DON’T Want Undone

But preference payments don’t just involve creditors you don’t care about. You may well not lose sleep over a trustee forcing a credit card company to return $1,000 it garnished from you on the eve of your bankruptcy filing. But what if you’d paid $1,000 on a personal loan to your brother or grandmother 6 months before filing bankruptcy? You’d promised to pay him or her back as soon as you got your tax refund, for example. So you did pay the $1,000. He or she really needed the money, and you felt huge emotional and ethical pressure to pay it. It was the right thing to do.

But now you hear from your bankruptcy lawyer that a Chapter 7 trustee could force your brother or grandmother to pay back that money. You feel that would be crazy, and wrong. Your brother or grandmother has long ago spent the $1,000 you paid on the loan. It would really be hard on them to now turn around and pay $1,000 to your trustee. In fact maybe one reason you paid off this debt was so that he or she would not be involved in your anticipated bankruptcy case. You may prefer that your relative not find out about you having to file bankruptcy. You can’t think of anything worse than he or she getting a demand from the trustee to pay the $1,000. This prospect may well turn you off about filing bankruptcy altogether.

The Solutions

However, this problem has a number of likely practical solutions. We’ll list them here and give brief explanations. Then next week we’ll expand on them to make sure they make sense.

1. Wait to File Until after the Preference Look-Back Period: With “insiders”—relatives and potentially anybody close to you–the look-back period is a full year before filing. It’s not just 90 days back, as it is with non-insiders. Regardless, especially if you are getting close to a year since your preferential payment, consider waiting long enough to avoid the problem altogether.

2. Persuade Trustee Not to Pursue the Preferential Payment: Your relative or other favored person that you paid may genuinely be unable to pay the $1,000 or whatever you paid. He or she may have no legally reachable income or assets. The trustee won’t want to waste money to pay his or her lawyer to fruitlessly pursue a preferential payment.  

3. Offer to Pay the Trustee a Reduced Amount Yourself: The trustee will usually not care where the preference money comes from—from the relative or other creditor who got your money, or anywhere else. So you could offer to pay that $1,000 or whatever that sum of money yourself. The trustee may even take monthly payments from you. Also, he or she may accept less than the full preference payment amount, subtracting what it would have cost in attorney fees and other costs for him or her to get it from your relative.

4. File a Chapter 13 Case to Prevent Pursuit of the Preferential Payment: Chapter 13 “adjustment of debts” often provides a very good solution. It works particularly if 1) you need to do a Chapter 13 anyway, 2) the preferential payment is large, and/or 3) none of the above solutions will work.

Next Time…

We’ll explain these four in our next blog post. The bottom line until then: a preferential payment to a relative and other favored creditor can be a scary problem, but it’s one that usually has a very sensible practical solution.

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210-342-3400

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